Small humanin-like peptides

Abstract

Novel peptides referred to as small humanin-like peptides (SHLPs) are provided herein along with nucleic acids encoding SHLPs and probes that selectively bind SHLPs. SHLPs have wide-ranging activity, including neuroprotective activity, anticancer activity, and cell survival activity. Also provided herein are therapeutic methods comprising administering an effective amount of an SHLP to a subject in need of treatment.

Claims

What is claimed: 1. An isolated small humanin-like peptide (SHLP) consisting of an amino acid sequence at least 90% identical to MGVKFFTLSTRFFPSVQRAVPLWTNS (SEQ ID NO: 9), wherein the SHLP has at least one therapeutic activity selected from the group consisting of: inhibiting cell death induced by amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in Alzheimer's disease, inhibiting apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells, stimulating insulin-induced differentiation of adipocytes, enhancing cellular resistance to environmental stress, and inhibiting intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). 2. A pharmaceutical composition comprising (i) a small humanin-like peptide (SHLP) consisting of an amino acid sequence at least 90% identical to MGVKFFTLSTRFFPSVQRAVPLWTNS (SEQ ID NO: 9); and (ii) at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, wherein the SHLP has at least one therapeutic activity selected from the group consisting of inhibiting cell death induced by amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in Alzheimer's disease, inhibiting apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells, stimulating insulin-induced differentiation of adipocytes, enhancing cellular resistance to environmental stress, and inhibiting intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application claims the benefit of Provisional Application No. 61/126,251, filed on May 1, 2008, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference. FIELD OF THE INVENTION Provided herein are a series of novel peptides encoded near the humanin locus in mitochondrial DNA, and fragments, derivatives, and variants thereof, which have neuroprotective, anticancer, and other beneficial activities. Also provided herein are isolated nucleic acids encoding such peptides, antibodies that selectively bind such peptides, agents that modulate the activity and/or expression of such peptides, and therapeutic methods involving the administration of such peptides, antibodies and agents. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In 2001, Nishimoto and colleagues identified humanin (HN), a novel 24-amino-acid peptide encoded from the 16S ribosomal RNA region of the mitochondrial DNA, and described it to be a potent neurosurvival factor capable of antagonizing Alzheimer's disease-related cell death insults (Hashimoto et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 98: 6336-41 (2001)). Humanin has also been described as a Bax antagonist that induces survival in various cancer cells (Guo et al., Nature, 423: 456-61 (2003)) and as an IGFBP-3 partner that antagonizes the apoptotic actions of IGFBP-3 on cancer cells (Ikonen et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100:13042-13047 (2003)). Additional work has indicated that humanin is a wide spectrum survival factor (Nishimoto et al., Trends Mol Med., 10:102-5 (2004)), but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. The humanin cDNA shares complete identity with the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene but spans only about half the length of the ribosomal RNA. Humanin transcripts of mitochondrial origin are present in kidney, testis, brain, and the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, humanin is highly conserved among species (between 90-100% homology), including lower organisms. Novel mutants and analogs of humanin with enhanced potency have been described, including HNG (S14G) (Hashimoto et al., J. Neurosci., 21: 9235-9245 (2001) and Terashita et al., J. Neurochem., 85: 1521-1538 (2003)), HNG-F6A (non-IGFBP-3 binding) (Ikonen et al., Proc Nat Acad Sci., 100: 13042-13047 (2003)) and colivelin (hybrid peptide containing partial sequences of HN and ADNF9). Humanin and its analogues and derivatives have shown therapeutic potential for an array of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, diabetes and kidney failure. BRIEF SUMMARY Provided herein are novel peptides, termed small humanin-like peptides (SHLPs), comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. Also provided herein are variants of an SHLP, comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 60%, at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, or at least 85% sequence identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. In some aspects, the variant has at least one therapeutic activity exhibited by the SHLP selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 to which it has at least 60%, at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, or at least 85% sequence identity. In some aspects, the variant has identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, and the at least one therapeutic activity is inhibiting cell death induced by a neurodegenerative disease. In some aspects, the variant has identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, and the at least one therapeutic activity is inhibiting cell death induced by a neurodegenerative disease. In further aspects, the therapeutic activity is inhibiting cell death induced by amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in Alzheimer's disease. In some aspects, the variant has identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, and the at least one therapeutic activity is inhibiting apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. In some aspects, the variant has identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 10, and the at least one therapeutic activity is stimulating insulin-induced differentiation of adipocytes. In some aspects, the variant has identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 10, and the at least one therapeutic activity is enhancing cellular resistance to environmental stress. In some aspects, the variant has identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 10, and the at least one therapeutic activity is inhibiting intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In some aspects, the variant has identity to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13, and the at least one therapeutic activity is anticancer activity. In further aspects, the anticancer activity is against prostate cancer and/or breast cancer. In yet further aspects, the anticancer activity is selected from the group consisting of: inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells, inhibiting tumor growth, and inhibiting angiogenesis. Also provided herein are variants of SHLPs comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 85% sequence identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. In various aspects, the variants comprise the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8, SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO:10, SEQ ID NO:11, SEQ ID NO:12, and SEQ ID NO:13. In another aspect, pharmaceutical compositions are provided herein comprising (i) a small humanin-like peptide (SHLP) having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13, or a variant of an SHLP comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 85% identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13; and (ii) at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. Also provided herein are methods of treating cancer, comprising administering, to a patient in need of treatment, an effective amount of a small humanin-like peptide (SHLP) having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13, or a variant of a SHLP comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 85% identity to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13. In some aspects, the cancer is selected from the group consisting of: breast cancer and prostate cancer. Methods are provided herein for treating diabetes mellitus, the methods comprising administering, to a patient in need of treatment, an effective amount of a small humanin-like peptide (SHLP) having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9 or SEQ ID NO:10, or a variant of a SHLP comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 85% identity to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9 or SEQ ID NO:10. Methods are further provided herein for treating a neurodegenerative disease, the methods comprising administering, to a patient in need of treatment, an effective amount of a small humanin-like peptide (SHLP) having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, and 11, or a variant of an SHLP comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 85% identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, and 11. Also provided herein are isolated polynucleotides, comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding a small humanin-like peptide (SHLP) having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13, or a variant of a SHLP comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 85% identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. In various aspects, the isolated polynucleotides comprise a nucleic acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Host cells are also provided herein, wherein the host cells are transformed with an isolated polynucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding a small humanin-like peptide (SHLP) having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13, or a variant of a SHLP comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 85% identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NOs: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 . A cartoon outlining the localization of humanin, and SHLPs within the mitochondrial chromosome. HN is shown as a dark rectangle relative to the enlarged 16S rRNA region within the mitochondrial genome. The six SHLPs are indicated by arrows. Also shown, are sites where mutations in several cancers (including prostate, breast and ovary) have been identified in the 16S rRNA region. FIG. 2 . SHLPs exert differential effects on apoptosis. 22RV1 (A) or NIT-1 (B) cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by 24 h with 100 nM scrambled control (Scr) peptide, HN, or SHLP 1-5. Apoptosis was assessed by fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. FIG. 3 . SHLPs stimulate the proliferation of NIT-1 and 22RV1 cells. 22RV1 (A) or NIT-1 (B) cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by 72 h with 100 nM scrambled control (Scr) peptide, HN, or SHLP 1-6. Cell number was assessed by cleavage of MTS substrate. FIG. 4 ERK and STAT3 activation by SHLPs. 22RV1 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by treatment with 100 nM SHLP, as indicated. A-C, phospho and total ERK were assessed by immunoblotting. D, Phospho (Y305) and total STAT3 were assessed by immunoblotting. FIG. 5 . ERK activation by SHLPs 2 and 3. 22RV1 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by treatment with 100 nM SHLP2 or 3 as indicated. Cell lysates were harvested at the indicated times, and ERK activation was assessed by ELISA, following manufacturer's instructions. FIG. 6 . Activation of ERK and STAT3 by SHLP2 and 3 in NIT-1 cells. NIT-1 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by treatment with 100 nM SHLP, as indicated. Phospho and total ERK, and phospho (Y305) and total STAT3 were assessed by immunoblotting. FIG. 7 Quantitation of ERK activation by SHLP2 and 3 in NIT-1 cells. NIT-1 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by treatment with 100 nM SHLP2 or 3 as indicated. Cell lysates were harvested at the indicated times, and ERK activation was assessed by ELISA, following manufacturer's instructions. FIG. 8 Apoptosis inhibition by SHLP2 and 3 requires ERK activation in 22RV1 and NIT-1 cells. 22RV1 (A) or NIT-1 (B) cells were incubated in SF media±25 μM PD98059 or 1 μM wortmannin for 24 h followed by 24 h with 100 nM scrambled control (Scr) peptide, SHLP2 or SHLP3. Apoptosis was assessed by fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. FIG. 9 STAT3 activation is necessary for SHLP-induced cell survival in 22RV1 cells. 22RV1 cells were incubated in SF media±20 μM stattic for 24 h followed by 24 h with 100 nM scrambled control (Scr) peptide, SHLP2 or SHLP3. Apoptosis was assessed by fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. FIG. 10 Effects of co-treatment with IGFBP-3 and SHLPs on apoptosis induction in NIT-1 cells. NIT-1 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by treatment with 1 μg/ml IGFBP-3±SHLP2 or 3 as indicated for 24 h. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA FIG. 11 Co-treatment with SHLP combinations leads to change of function in 22RV1 and NIT-1 cells. 22RV1 (A) and NIT-1 (B) cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h, followed by 24 h with 100 nM HN±SHLPs as indicated. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. FIG. 12 HN binds to SHLP2 and SHLP4. 2, 5 and 10 nmol of IGF-1 (negative control), HN, SHLP1, 2 or 4 were dotted on to nitrocellulose membrane and left to dry. The membrane was blocked, incubated with biotinylated-HN and streptavidin-HRP and exposed by autoradiography. FIG. 13 SHLPs 2 and 3 function as neuro-protective factors. Murine primary cortical neurons were incubated for 72 h with 25 μM Aβ1-43 in the presence or absence of 100 nM HNG, SHLP2, SHLP3 or 10 nM colivelin. Neuronal viability was observed by fluorescence microscopy after Calcein-AM staining FIG. 14 SHLPs 2 and 3 enhance yeast survival against heat shock. S. cerevisiae was incubated in reducing concentrations with HN or SHLPs as indicated. The ability of yeast to survive heat shock at 60 and 90° C. were compared. FIG. 15 . SHLP2 suppresses production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). FIG. 16 . SHLP2 and 3 stimulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with 100 nM scrambled (control) peptide, SHLP2, 3 or 6 for 7 days, and differentiation was assessed by oil red-O staining. Staining intensity was quantified; n=3. FIG. 17 . Analysis of cellular markers affected by SHLP6 treatment. Cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by treatment with 1 μM SHLP6 for 2 h. Cell lysates were harvested and hybridized to an antibody microarray (Kinexus), a panel of which is shown. Red indicates SHLP6-treated and blue control. FIG. 18 . SHLP6 is a potent inducer of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro. PC-3, DU-145 or 22RV1 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by 24 h with 1 μM scrambled control (Scr) peptide or SHLP6. Apoptosis was assessed by fragmentation of histone-associated DNA FIG. 19 . SHLP6 has a variable effect on prostate cancer cell proliferation. DU-145, LAPC4, LNCaP, 22RV1 or PC-3 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by 72 h with 1 μM scrambled control (Scr) peptide or SHLP6. Cell number was assessed by cleavage of MTS substrate FIG. 20 . SHLP6 increases tumor apoptosis, and decreases tumor angiogenesis and proliferation. Harvested tumors were stained by immunohistochemistry for TUNEL (apoptosis), VEGF (angiogenesis) and PCNA (proliferation) after 1 week treatment with SHLP6. FIG. 21 . SHLP6 is a potent apoptosis-inducer and growth-suppressor in breast cancer cells in vitro. A, Apoptosis was assessed in MCF-7 cells after 24 h incubation with 1 μM scrambled control (Scr) peptide or SHLP6. B, MCF-7 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by 72 h with SHLP6 or control FIG. 22 . Reduction of tumor size and volume in mice i.p. injected with SHLP6. 22RV1 Xenografts were given daily i.p. injection with 4 mg/kg/day SHLP6 or scrambled control peptide for 7 days. Tumor volume was measured daily (A), and tumors were weighed at the end of the treatment period (B). FIG. 23 . SHLP6 peptide significantly inhibits vessel formation in zebrafish embryos in vivo. SHLP6 peptide was injected into zebrafish embryos having a vascular system engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP), allowing for visualization of blood vessel growth and development. SHLP6 significantly inhibited vessel formation at 48 hpf. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE ASPECTS Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, suitable methods and materials are described below. All publications, patent applications, patents, and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. Examples provided herein are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting. The present invention is related to the discovery of a number of open reading frames (ORFs) near the humanin locus in mitochondrial DNA that encode a series of previously uncharacterized polypeptides. The genomic organization of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is shown in FIG. 1 , including the 16s rRNA gene sequence and the location of the ORF within the 16s rRNA gene which encodes humanin. A detailed study of the 16s rRNA sequence revealed additional ORFs encoding six putative peptides ( FIG. 1 ), referred to herein as SHLPs 1-6. The peptide sequences of SHLPs 1-6 and humanin are shown in table 1 along with the locations of the corresponding ORFs within the mtDNA. SHLPs 1-6 and fragments, derivatives, and variants thereof are collectively referred to herein as “small humanin-like peptides” or “SHLPs.” TABLE 1 Sequence characteristics of HN and SHLPs Location within SEQ SEQ Peptide mtDNA ID (nt) ID (aa) Amino Acid sequence SHLP1 2490-2561 1 8 MCHWAGGASNTGDARGDVFGKQAG SHLP2 2092-2170 2 9 MGVKFFTLSTRFFPSVQRAVPLWTNS SHLP3 1707-1821 3 10 MLGYNFSSFPCGTISIAPGFNFYRLY FIWVNGLAKVVW SHLP4 2446-2524 4 11 MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL SHLP5 2785-2856 5 12 MYCSEVGFCSEVAPTEIFNAGLVV SHLP6 2992-3051 6 13 MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND HN 2634-2707 7 14 MAPRGFSCLLLLTSEIDLPVKRRA Although humanin was first discovered within the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequence, subsequent studies have identified a several copies of the humanin ORF in the nuclear genome and have shown that humanin cDNAs are transcribed by both mitochondrial and cytosolic ribosomes (e.g., Guo et al., Nature, 423: 456-61 (2003)). The amino acid sequences of mitochondrial humanin and several nuclear humanin analogues are provided in Table 2. Mitochondrial-derived humanin shares 92-95% identity with the nuclear-encoded cDNAs. Humanin has been demonstrated in brain and testis, and has been shown to be present at concentrations of 1-10 ng/ml in plasma, CSF and seminal fluid (Ikonen et al., Proc Nat Acad Sci., 100: 13042-13047 (2003)). TABLE 2 Amino acid sequences of HN peptides SEQ ID SEQ ID Peptide Amino acid sequence (nt) (aa) Humanin (M) MAPRGFSCLLLLTSEIDLPVKRRA 7 14 Humanin (3) MAPRGFSCLLL S TSEIDLPVKRRA 15 19 Humanin (11) MAPRGFSCLLL S TSEIDLPVKRRA 16 20 Humanin (5) MAPRGFSCLLL S TSEIDLPVKR.. 17 21 Humanin (7) M T PRGFSCLLL P TSE T DLPVKRR. 18 22 Since the humanin coding sequence is represented in both mithochondrial and genomic DNA, human genomic DNA was searched with the coding sequences of SHLPs 1-6 to assess whether SHLPs may have a similar distribution. Multiple, highly homologous copies of the SHLP coding sequences were found within the genomic DNA. The coding sequences listed in Table 4 occurred within ORFs associated with a Kozak consensus sequence for the initiation of eukaryotic translation (Kozak, Mamm. Genome, 7:563-574 (1996)). The amino acid sequences of the encoded peptides and the mitochondrial SHLPs are provided in Table 3 (with chromosomal or mitochondrial origin indicated in parentheses). Without being limited by a particular theory, it is believed that both mitochondrial and genomic SHLPs are expressed in vivo and perform a wide range of functions in various cells and tissues. References made herein to “SHLPs” include nucleic acids of both mitochondrial and genomic origin, their encoded peptides, and variants of such nucleic acids and peptides. In some preferred aspects, SHLPs of genomic origin provided herein share at least one activity with a homologous mitochondrial SHLP. TABLE 3 Amino acid sequences of human SHLPs SEQ ID SHLP Amino acid sequence (aa) SHLP1 (M) MCHWAGGASNTGDARGDVFGKQAG 8 SHLP2 (M) MGVKFFTLSTRFFPSVQRAVPLWTNS 9 SHLP2 (5) MG I KFFTL F TRFFPSVQRAVPLWTNS 23 SHLP3 (M) MLGYNFSSFPCGTISIAPGFNFYRLYFIWVNG 10 LAKVVW SHLP4 (M) MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL 11 SHLP4 (7) MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL 24 SHLP4 (3) MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL 25 SHLP4 (11) MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL 26 SHLP4 (6) MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL 27 SHLP4 (5) MLEVMFLVNR W GK V CRVPFTFFNLSL 28 SHLP4 (7) MLEVMFLVNR Q GKICRVPF N FF .... 29 SHLP4 (4) MLEVMFLVNR Q GKIC . VPFTF CK LSL 30 SHLP4 (9) MLEVMFLVNR W GKICRVPFTF C N I SL 31 SHLP4 (17) MLEVMFL I NRRGKI R. VPFTFFNLSL 32 SHLP4 (X) MLEVMFLVNRRGKIC G VPFTF CI LSL 33 SHLP4 (17) MLEVMFLVNR QD KIC . VPFTF C NLSL 34 SHLP4 (10) MLEVMFLVNRRGKI G.I PFTF C NLSL 35 SHLP4 (20) MLEVMFLVNRRGKIC . VPF I F ..... 36 SHLP4 (17) ML A VMFLVN KL GKICRVPFT VC NLSL 37 SHLP4 (10) .... V FLVNR QSM ICRVPFTF C NLSL 38 SHLP4 (2) MLEV V FLVNR Q GKIC QF PFTF C NLSL 39 SHLP4 (8) MLEVMFLVNRR D KIC Q VPFTF C N F SL 40 SHLP4 (10) ML G VMFLV E R W G EM CRVPFTF C NLSL 41 SHLP5 (M) MYCSEVGFCSEVAPTEIFNAGLVV 12 SHLP6 (M) MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND 13 SHLP6 (17) MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND 42 SHLP6 (4) MLDQDI L MV . L LL R VRLFND 43 SHLP6 (7) MLDQDI LI VQPLL R V H LFND 44 SHLP6 (4) MLDQD ML MVQPL S KVRLFND 45 SHLP6 (2) MLD Q DIQMV . PLL R V C LF K D 46 SHLP6 (14) MLDQD VL MV . PL IR VRLFND 47 SHLP6 (9) MLDQDI L MV . PLL R V H LFND 48 TABLE 4 Nucleic acid sequences of human SHLPs SEQ ID SHLP Nucleic acid sequence (nt) SHLP1 (M) TTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACATCACCTCTA 1 GCATCACCAGTATTAGAGGCACCGCCTGCCCAG TGACACAT SHLP2 (M) TTAACTGTTAGTCCAAAGAGGAACAGCTCTTTG 2 GACACTAGGAAAAAACCTTGTAGAGAGAGTAAA AAATTTAACACCCAT SHLP2 (5) TTAACTGTTAGTCCAAAGAGGAACAGCTCTTTG 49 GACACTAGGAAAAAACCTTGTAAAGAGAGTAAA AAATTTAATACCCAT SHLP3 (M) CTACCAGACAACCTTAGCCAAACCATTTACCCA 3 AATAAAGTATAGGCGATAGAAATTGAAACCTGG CGCAATAGATATAGTACCGCAAGGGAAAGATGA AAAATTATAACCAAGCAT SHLP4 (M) TCATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 4 CTCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAA CATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (7) ATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACT 50 CGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAAC ATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (3) TCATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 51 CTCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAA CATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (11) TCATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 52 CTCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAA CATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (6) TCATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 53 CTCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAA CATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (5) AAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACTCG 54 GCAAACCTTACCCCACCTGTTTACCAAAAACATC ACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (7) TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAATTAAAAGGAACTC 55 GGCAAATTTTACCCTGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACAT CACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (4) TAAGGAAAGTTTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACTCA 56 GCAAATCTTACCCTGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACATC ACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (9) TAAGGAAATATTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACTCG 57 GCAAATCTTACCCCACCTGTTTACCAAAAACATC ACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (17) AAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACTCA 58 GCGAATCTTACCCCTCCTGTTTATCAAAAACATC ACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (17) TAAGGAAAGATTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACTC 59 AGCAAATCTTATCCTGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACAT CACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (10) TAAGGAAAGATTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAATTCA 60 GCCAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACATC ACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (20) TAAGGAAACATTACAAAAAAATAAAAGGAACTC 61 AGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACAT CACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (17) TAAGGAAAGATTACAAACAGTAAAAGGAACTCG 62 GCAAATCTTACCCAGCTTGTTTACCAAAAACATC ACCGCTAGCAT SHLP4 (10) TAAGGAAAGATTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACTC 63 GGCAAATCATACTCTGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACA- CACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (2) TAAGGAAAGATTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAAATT 64 GGCAAATCTTACCTTGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACAC CACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8) TAAGGAAAAATTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACTTG 65 GCAAATCTTGTCCCGCCTATTTACCAAAAACATC ACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (10) TAAGGAAAGATTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACTC 66 GGCACATTTCACCCCATCTCTCTACCAAAAACAT CACCCCTAGCAT SHLP4 (X) TAAGGAAAGATTTTTTAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACT 67 CAGCAAAAGGAAACCCGTCTTGTTTACCAAAAA CATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP5 (M) CTAAACTACCAAACCTGCATTAAAAATTTCGGTT 5 GGGGCGACCTCGGAGCAGAACCCAACCTCCGAG CAGTACAT SHLP6 (M) ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCCAATGGTGCAGCCG 6 CTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATTAA SHLP6 (17) ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCCAATGGTGCAGCCG 68 CTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATTAA SHLP6 (4) ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCTAATGGTGTAGCTG 69 CTATTAAGGGTTCGTTTGTTCAATGATTAA SHLP6 (7) ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCTAATTGTACAGCCA 70 CTATTAAGGGTTCATTTGTTCAACGATTAA SHLP6 (4) ATGTTGGATCAGGACATGCTGATGGTGCAGCCG 71 CTATCAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAATGATT SHLP6 (2) ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCAAATGGTGTAGCCA 72 CTATTAAGGGTTTGTCTGTTCAAAGATTAA SHLP6 (14) ATGTTGGATCAGGACGTCCTAATGGTGTAGCCG 73 CTAATAAGGGTTCGTTTGTTCAATGATCAA SHLP6 (9) ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCTAATGGTGTAGCCG 74 CTATTAAGGGTTCATTTATTCAATGATTAA Mitochondrial SHLPs 1-6 are small peptides of 24, 26, 38, 26, 24, and 20-amino acids, respectively, transcribed from within the 16s rRNA gene of the mtDNA. Tables 5 and 6 contain amino acid and nucleic acid sequences, respectively, of both mitochondrial and genomic SHLPs across a range of species, including but not limited to, primates, guinea pigs, cats, dogs, horses, rats, and mice. SHLPs are generally highly conserved among species, including lower vertebrates. SHLP1 variants include truncated peptides comprising residues 1-21 of the mitochondrial peptide, as well as peptides that are C-terminally extended by up to about 10 residues. SHLP2 variants include truncated peptides comprising the N-terminal β-16 residues of the mitochondrial peptide. SHLP4 variants include truncated peptides comprising the N-terminal 10-22 residues of the mitochondrial peptide, as well as peptides that are C-terminally extended by about 3 to about 30 residues. SHLP6 variants include truncated peptides comprising residues 1-9 of the mitochondrial peptide, as well as peptides that are C-terminally extended by about 3 to about 6 residues. References made herein to “SHLPs” include both truncated and extended variants, such as but not limited to, the peptides set forth in Table 5 and variants thereof TABLE 5 Amino acid sequences of non-human SHLPs SEQ ID SHLP Species Amino acid sequence (aa) SHLP1 (M) Chimp MCH R AGGAS N TGNARGDVFGKQAG 75 SHLP1 (M) Orangutan MCH R AGGASNTG N ARGDVFGKQAG 76 SHLP1 (5) Rhesus MC-WAG SD S H TG N ARGDVFGKQ M G 77 SHLP1 (8) Rhesus MCHWAGGASNTG N ARGDVFGK 78 SHLP1 (16) Rhesus MCHWAG S ASNTS N ARGDVFGKQA EVKFAE 79 FLLLF SHLP1 (18) Rhesus MC Q WAGGASNTG N A S GDVFGK QAGLSLLS 80 SFYFF SHLP1 Cat M SLGRPCL- 81 (149667) NT K NARGDV I GKQAG SVFVESLLLLLIFL SHLP2 (M) Chimp MGVKFFTL F TRFFPSV 82 SHLP2 (9) Chimp MGVKFFTL F TRFFPSV 83 SHLP2 Chimp MG I KFFTL F TRFFPSVQRAVPLWTNS 84 (11a) SHLP2 Chimp MG I KFFTL F T S FFPSVQRAVPLWTNS 85 (11b) SHLP2 (M) Orangutan MGVVFFTL FL RFFPSV 86 SHLP2 (17) Orangutan MGVVF LLSFQG FS 87 SHLP4 (M) Chimp MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLS LWAC 88 LCWVNSGGNNGLLVDCRY SHLP4 (1) Chimp MLEV I FLVNR PS KICRVPFTF C NLSL EHA 89 CVGLTE SHLP4 (2b) Chimp MLEVVFLVNR Q GKICR F PFTF C NLSL EYD 90 CVGLTVKITGYLLYRLLILGC SHLP4 (4 a ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR Q GKIC 91 SHLP4 (4 b ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR W GKIC H VP L TF C NLSL EHT 92 LVGLTV SHLP4 (5) Chimp MLEVRFLVNRRGKICRV QLL F LTFPCGHA 93 CVGLTVGVIMACW SHLP4 (6) Chimp MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL WAC 94 LCWVNSRSNTVSFFYIWLANYPSTIC SHLP4 (7 a ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL 95 SHLP4 (7 b ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR Q GKICRVPF N FF 96 SHLP4 (8 a ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR Q GK T CRVPF S F C NLSL EHT 97 CVGLTV SHLP4 (8 b ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNRR D KIC Q VPFTF C NFSL EHT 98 CVG SHLP4 (8 c ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR Q G M ICRV L FTF CSP SL EHT 99 CVRLKM SHLP4 (9 a ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLS LWAC 100 LCWVNSGGNNGLLVDCRY SHLP4 (9 b ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR 101 SHLP4 (10 a ) Chimp ML Q VMFLVNRRGKIG 102 SHLP4 (11 a ) Chimp MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL WAC 103 LCWVNSGGNSEAQVC SHLP4 Chimp MLEVMFLVNRRGK V CRVPFTFFNLSL WAC 104 (11 b ) LCWVNSGGNNGLLVGCRY SHLP4 (11 c ) Chimp MLEVMFLV S R W GKICRVPFTFFNLSL 105 SHLP4 (17) Chimp MLEVMFLVN KL GKICRVPFT VC NLSL EHT 106 CVGLTV SHLP4 (20) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR 107 SHLP4 (X) Chimp MLEVMFLVNRRGKIC G VPFTF CI LSL EHT 108 CVGLTV SHLP4 (Ya) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR Q G T IC 109 SHLP4 (Yb) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR Q G T IC 110 SHLP4 (Yc) Chimp MLEVMFLVNR Q G T IC 111 SHLP4 (M) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNRRG E ICRVPFTFFNLSL 112 SHLP4 (2b a ) Orangutan MLEVMFLVN SQ G M IC 113 SHLP4 Orangutan MLE M VFLVNR Q GKICR F PFTF C NLSL EYD 114 (2b b ) CVGLTVKITGCLLYHLLILDC SHLP4 (4 a ) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNR W GKICRVPLTF C NLSL EHT 115 LVGLTV SHLP4 (4 b ) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNR W GKICRVPLTF C NLSL EHA 116 LVGLTV SHLP4 (7 a ) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNR Q GKIC Q VPFTFFNLS YKHA 117 CVGLTVWVAPVCLKPATL SHLP4 (7 b ) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNR Q GKICRVPFT L FNLSL EHA 118 CVGLTV SHLP4 (8) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNR WD KIC Q VPFTF C N F SL EHT 119 CVG SHLP4 (9) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNR W GKIC L VPF FVIFP 120 SHLP4 (10 a ) Orangutan MLEVMFLVN S RGKIC 121 SHLP4 Orangutan ML G VMFLV K RR SEM C 122 (10 b ) SHLP4 (11) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNR Q GKIC 123 SHLP4 (12) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNRRG E ICRVPFTFFNLS 124 SHLP4 (17 a ) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNRRG E ICRVPFTFFNLSL 125 SHLP4 Orangutan MLEVMFLVN KL GKICRVPFT VC NLSL EHT 126 (17 b ) CVGLTV SHLP4 (17 c ) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNRR D KIC Q VPFTF C NLSL EHT 127 CVGLTV SHLP4 (20) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNRRGKIC 128 SHLP4 (X) Orangutan MLEVMFLVNR W GKIC G VPFTF CI LSL EHT 129 CVGLTV SHLP4 (1 a ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNRRG LSLPSS F Y FF 130 SHLP4 (1 b ) Rhesus MLEV I FLVNR PS KICR A PFTF C NLSL AHA 131 CVGLTE SHLP4 (3) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR Q GKIC 132 SHLP4 (5 a ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNRRG LSLPSS F Y FF 133 SHLP4 (5 b ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR Q GKIC 134 SHLP4 (5 c ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR W GKIC H VPFTF LQS SL EDT 135 SHLP4 (6 a ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNRRG LSLPSS F Y FF 136 SHLP4 (6 b ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR W G 137 SHLP4 (6 c ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNRRG LSLPSS F YL F 138 SHLP4 (8 a ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNRRG 139 SHLP4 (8 b ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR WD KICRVPF S F C NLSL EHA 140 CVGLAV SHLP4 (8 c ) Rhesus MLEVMFLV S R WD KIC Q VPFTF CY LSL EHT 141 CVG SHLP4 (9 a ) Rhesus MLGVMFLVNRRG E ICRV S FTF C NLSL EHA 142 SHLP4 (9 b ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR QC KIC 143 SHLP4 (9 c ) Rhesus MLEVM IS VNRR L K FAEFLLL F LTFP 144 SHLP4 (10 a ) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR P GKIC Q VPFTFFNLSL EHT 145 CVGITV SHLP4 Rhesus ML D VMFLVNR Q G R IC Q VPFTF C N V SL EHA 146 (10 b ) CVGLTVQIIGVYYIIY SHLP4 (13) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR Q G M IC QI PFTF C N I SL EHT 147 CVGLIV SHLP4 (14) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR QS KI G 148 SHLP4 (15) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR Q G 149 SHLP4 (16) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR W G LSLPSS F Y FF 150 SHLP4 (18) Rhesus ML V VMFLVNRRG 151 SHLP4 (20) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNR W GKI SEFLIL F VIFP 152 SHLP4 (X) Rhesus MLEVMFLVNRRGKIC Q VPFTF CV LSL QHA 153 CVGLTV SHLP4 (M) Mouse MLEVMFLVNRRG SCLPSS F YL F GSF L 154 SHLP4 (M) Rat MLE E MFLVNRRG SCLPSS FTF L N FP 155 SHLP4 (M, Guinea MLEVMFLVNRR DLCLPSS F C F VLSFLSST 701 a-b , 953 a-b , Pig PVSG 1260, 1738, 1772, 1912, 2039, 2262, 2354, 2542, 2574, 2887) SHLP4 (13) Guinea MLEVMFLVNR QDLCLPS SF C F VSSFLSST 156 Pig PVSD SHLP4 (35) Guinea MLEVMFLV I RR DLCLPS SF C F VSSFLSST 157 Pig PVSG SHLP4 (86) Guinea MLEVMFLVNRR DLCLPCS F CL F FFFVFPE 158 Pig SHLP4 Guinea MLEVMFLVNR QDLCLPS SF C F LSFPSSTP 159 (141) Pig MSD SHLP4 Guinea MLEV V FLV KQA G FVFAE F LLLCFVFPE 160 (243) Pig SHLP4 Guinea MLEVMFLV TGGICV CRVPF AL F C LS 161 (701) Pig SHLP4 Cat MLEVMFLVNRRG LCLPSS F Y FF 162 (18811, 18812, 30562, 112167 a-e ) SHLP4 Cat MLEVMFLVNRRG LHLPSS F H F L 163 (37160) SHLP4 Cat MLEV IL LVNR W G LCSLSS F Y F VSSF L DCL 164 (44282, SVLGQQLVWY 93736) SHLP4 Cat MLEVMF S VNRR DLCLPSS F Y FF 165 (112168) SHLP4 Cat MLEVMFLVNRRG LCLPSS F Y FF 166 (172769) SHLP4 (M) Dog ML PLHGQDTAAV K QVSPGRQCLQY SHLP4 (M) Horse MLEVMFLVNRRG LCLPSS F Y FF 167 SHLP4 (1) Horse MLEVMF S VN M RG LCLPSS F Y FF 168 SHLP4 (8) Horse MLEVMFLVNRR SLCLLSS F Y FF KSF L RVH 169 ACVGLTV SHLP4 (M) Cow ML PLHGQDTAAVKQLSLGRQCLQYWECWR SHLP4 (M) Platypus MLEAMFLVNRR NPSLPSS F YS F 170 SHLP4 (M) Fugu ....MFLVNRRG FEFAEFLL F LLVFPIWH 171 TSVGVTEKC SHLP4 (M) Stickleback IQ EAMFLVNRRG FM C LPSSFS F F 172 SHLP4 (M) Madeka ISSLQ E A MFLVNRR GLVYLP S SFSSF LS F 173 LKSTPV SHLP4 (M) Lamprey ILDF YLEVMFLVNRRG MCLPSS F LS F ISSILC 174 SSVGLTVISSCFSCCCLCF SHLP5 (M) Chimp MYCSEVG L CSEVAPTEIFNAGLIV 175 SHLP5 (M) Orangutan M CF SEVG L CSEVAPTEIF S AGLVI 176 SHLP5 (M) Chicken .VGL E DF F F SKVAPTE KCRP G VY V WVDPV 177 GLCKVVRWS SHLP6 (M) Chimp MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND 178 SHLP6 (1) Chimp MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND 179 SHLP6 (4a) Chimp MLDQD ML MVQPL S KVRLFND CTS 180 SHLP6 (4b) Chimp MLDQDI L MVQ L LL R V CF F S D 181 SHLP6 (5) Chimp MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND 182 SHLP6 (7) Chimp MLDQDI L MVQPLLKVRLFND 183 SHLP6 (9) Chimp MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND 184 SHLP6 (17) Chimp MLDQDI L MVQP V LRVRLFND 185 SHLP6 (M) Orangutan MLDQDI L MVQPLLKVRLFND 186 SHLP6 (4a) Orangutan MLDQDI L MV 187 SHLP6 (4b) Orangutan MLDQDI L MVQPL S K FH LF NNCTS 188 SHLP6 (4c) Orangutan MLD HV I L MV 189 SHLP6 (9) Orangutan MLDQDI L MV 190 SHLP6 (11) Orangutan MLDQDI L MV 191 SHLP6 Orangutan MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND 192 (13a) SHLP6 Orangutan MLDQDI L MV 193 (13b) SHLP6 (14) Orangutan MLDQDI L MV 194 SHLP6 Orangutan MLDQDI L MVQPLLKVRLFND 195 (17a) SHLP6 Orangutan MLDQDI L MVQPLL R VRLFND 196 (17b) SHLP6 Orangutan MLDQDIP R VQ L LLK F RLFND 197 (17c) SHLP6 (1, Rhesus MLDQDI L MVQ Q L SR VRLFND 198 2, 4, 5, 6, 13) SHLP6 (5) Rhesus ML H QDI L MV 199 SHLP6 (8) Rhesus MLDQDI L MVQ Q L SR V L LFN N 200 SHLP6 (18) Rhesus MLDQDI L MV 201 SHLP6 (M) Mouse MLDQDIPMV 202 SHLP6 (M) Rat MLDQDIPMVQ K LLMVRLFND 203 SHLP6 Opossum MLDQDTPMVQPLLKVRLFND 204 (unknown) SHLP6 Platypus MLDQD I QMVQPLL M VRLFND 205 (unknown) SHLP6 Guinea MLDQDI L MVQ Q LL R VRLFND 206 (M, 35, 48, pig 701 a-c , 953 a-b , 1260, 1486, 1738, 1772, 1912, 2039, 2262, 2354, 2574, 2887) SHLP6 (13) Guinea MLD LV I L MVQPL SR VRLFND 207 Pig SHLP6 (79) Guinea MLDQD VL M G QPLL S VRLFND 208 Pig SHLP6 (86) Guinea MLDQDI L MV RR LL R V H LFND 209 Pig SHLP6 Guinea MLDQDI L MVQ Q LL R VRLFND 210 (243) Pig SHLP6 Cat MLDQDIPMVQ Q L S KVRLFND 211 (18811, 18812) SHLP6 Cat MLDQDIP I VQ Q L S KV C LFND 212 (30562, 66390, 112167 a-e ) SHLP6 Cat MLDQDIP I VQ Q L S KV C LFND 213 (37160) SHLP6 Cat MLDQDIPMVQ Q LSK F RLFN NSSPT 214 (63432) SHLP6 Cat MLDQDIPMVQ Q L A KVRL LD D 215 (92191) SHLP6 (M) Dog MLDQDI LM VQQL LR V R LFND 216 SHLP6 (X) Dog MLDQDI LM VQQL LR V S LFN N 217 SHLP6 (M) Horse MLDQDI LM VQ P L LR V R LFND 218 SHLP6 (1) Horse MLDQDI LMV Q P L LR VCLFND 219 SHLP6 (M) Cow MLDQDI LM VQ P LSKV R LFND 220 SHLP6 (M) Chicken MLDQD NLM VQ P L LR V R LFND 221 SHLP6 (M) Zebra MLDQDI LV VQ P L LR V R LFND 222 Finch SHLP6 (2) Zebra MLDQDI LV VQ P L LR V R LFND LQSYVI 223 Finch SHLP6 Lizard MLDQD TQM VQ P L L KV R LFND 224 (927 a-b , 2224 a-b ) SHLP6 X. tropicalis MLDQ G IP V VQ P L L KV R LFND 225 (18215) SHLP6 (M) Zebrafish MLDQDI LM VQ P L LR V R LFND 226 SHLP6 Tetradon MLDQDI LM VQ P L LR V R LFND 227 (unknown) SHLP6 (M) Fugu MLDQDI LM VQ P L L KV R LFND 228 SHLP6 (M) Stickleback MLDQDI LM VQ P L LR V R LFND 229 SHLP6 (M) Medaka MLDQDI LM VQ P L LR VCLFN N 230 SHLP6 (M) Lamprey MLD RGT P MA QKL L KV R LFND 231 TABLE 6 Nucleic acid sequences encoding non-human SHLPs SEQ ID SHLP Species Nucleic acid sequence (nt) SHLP1 (M) Chimp TTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACATCACC 232 TCTAGCAT T ACCAGTATTAGAGGCACCGCC TGCCC G GTGACA T AT SHLP1 (M) Orangutan T C ACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAAAACATCACC 233 TCTAGCAT T ACCAGTATTAGAGGCACCGCC TGCCC G GTGACACAT SHLP1 (5) Rhesus TTACCCC AT CTGTTTACCAAAAACATCACC 3 TCTAGCAT T ACCAGTAT G AGAG T CAC T GCC TGCCCAGCACAT SHLP1 (8) Rhesus T A ACCCCGCCT A TTTACCAAAAACATCACC 4 TCTAGCAT T ACCAGTATTAGAGGCACCGCC TGCCCAGTGACACA SHLP1 (16) Rhesus CCGCCTGTTT ACCAAAAACA TCACCTCTAG 5 CAT TG C T AGT ATTAGAGGCA C T GCCTGCCC AGTGACACAT SHLP1 (18) Rhesus T A ACCCCGCC TGTTTACCAA AAACATCACC 6 A CTAGCAT T A CCAGTATTAG AGGCACCGCC TGCCCA T TGA CACAT SHLP1 Cat ACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA T AACATCACCTC 234 (149667) TAGCAT TTTT AGTATTAAGGCAC G GCCTGC CCAG G GACA T SHLP2 (M) Chimp TTAACTGTTAGTCCAAAGAGGAACAGCTCT 235 TT A GACACTAGGAAAAAACCTTGTA A AGAG AGTAAAAAATTTAACACCCAT SHLP2 (9) Chimp TTAACTGTTAGTCCAAAGAGGAACAGCTCT 236 TT A GACACTAGGAAAAAACCTTGTA A AGAG AGTAAAAAATTTAACACCCA T SHLP2 Chimp TTAACTGTTAGTCCAAAGAGGAACAGCTCT 237 (11a) TTGGACACTAGGAAAAAACCTTGTA A AGAG AGTAAAAAATTTAA T ACCCA T SHLP2 Chimp TTAACTGTTAGTCCAAAGAGGAACAGCTCT 238 (11b) TTGGACACTAGGAAAAAA A CTTGTA A AGAG AGTAAAAAATTTAA T ACCCAT SHLP2 (M) Orangutan TAGTC T AAAGAGGAACAGCTCTTT A GACAC 239 TAGGAAAAAACCTT AA A A AGAGAGTAAAA AA CAC AACACCCAT SHLP2 (17) Orangutan TAGTC T AAAG AGGAACAGCTCTTT A GACAC 240 TAGGAAAAACCTTG A A A AGAGAGT(*)AAAA A CAC AACACCCAT SHLP4 (M) Chimp AAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAAC 241 TCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA A AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (1) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 242 CTC T GCAAATCTTAC T C G G T CTGTTTACCAA AAA T ATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (2b) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 243 A TCGGCAAATCTTACC TT GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACA C CACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (4 a ) Chimp TAAGGAAAG T TTA C AA C AAGTAAAAGGAA 244 CTC A GCAAATCTTACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (4 b ) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TT GC AAAAAGTAAGAGGAA 245 C AT G A CAAATCTTACCCCACCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (5) Chimp AAGGAAAGGT TAAAAAAAGT 246 AA TT GAACTC GGCAAATCTT ACCCCGCCTG TTTACCAAAA AC C TCACCTC TAGCAT SHLP4 (6) Chimp CATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGG 247 AACTCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (7 a ) Chimp T T ATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAG 248 GAACTCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTA CCAAAAACATCACCTCTAGCA T SHLP4 (7 b ) Chimp TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAA AT TAAAAGGA 249 ACTCGGCAAAT T TTACCC T GCCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8 a ) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAA C TAAAAGGAA 250 CTC T GCAA G TCTTACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8 b ) Chimp TAAGGAAA AA TTA C AAAAAGT G AAAGGAA 251 CT T GGCAAATCTT GT CCCGCCT A TTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8 c ) Chimp TAAGGAA G G AC T GC AAAAAGTAAAA A GAA 252 CTCG A CAAATC A TACCC T GCCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (9 a ) Chimp AAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAAC 253 TCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA A AACATCACCT CTAGCAT SHLP4 (9 b ) Chimp TAAGGAAA T ATTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 254 CTCGGCAAATCTTACCC TA CCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (10 a ) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 255 T TC A GC C AATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCT G TAGCAT SHLP4 (11 a ) Chimp AAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAAC 256 TCGGCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA A AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Chimp AAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAAC 257 (11 b ) TCGGCAAA C CTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (11 c ) Chimp AAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAAC 258 TCGGCAAATCTTACCCC A CCTG C TTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (17) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAA C AGTAAAAGGAA 259 CTCGGCAAATCTTACCC A GC T TGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (20) Chimp TAAGGAAA TA TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 260 CTCGGCAAATCTTACCC TA CCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (X) Chimp TAAGGAAAG AA TA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 261 CTC C GCAAAT T TTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (Ya) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAA C TAAAAGGAA 262 CTC A GCAAATC G TACCC T GCCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (Yb) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAACTAAAAGGAA 263 CTC A GCAAATC G TACCC T GCCTGTTTACCA A AAACATCACC TCTAGCAT SHLP4 (Yc) Chimp TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAA C TAAAAGGAA 264 CTC A GCAAATC G TACCC T GCCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACC TCTAGCAT SHLP4 (M) Orangutan ATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGA 265 ACTCGGCAAATCT C ACCCCGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (2b a ) Orangutan TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 266 CTC A GCAAATC A TACCC T G A CTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Orangutan TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 267 (2b b ) A TCGGCAAATCTTACC TT GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACA C CA T CTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (4 a ) Orangutan TAAGGAAAG A TT GC AAAAAGTAA G AGGAA 268 C A CG A CAAATCTTACCCC A CCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (4 b ) Orangutan TAAGGAAA G ATT GC AAAAAGTAAGAGGAA 269 C A CG A CAAATCTTACCCC A CCTGTTTACCA A G AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (7 a ) Orangutan AGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACT 270 T GGCAAATCTTACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAAA AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (7 b ) Orangutan TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAA G AGTAAAAGGAA 271 CTCGGCAAAT T TTACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8) Orangutan TAAGGAAA AA TTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 272 CT T GGCAAATCTTA T CCC A CCT A TTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (9) Orangutan TAAGGAAA TATTACAAA AAAAGGAACT A G 273 GCAAATCTTACCCC A CCTGTTTACCAAAAA CATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (10 a ) Orangutan TAAGGAAAG A TTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 274 T TC A GCAAATCTTACCCCG A CTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Orangutan TAAGGAAAG A TTACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 275 (10 b ) CTC A GCACAT T T C AC T CCG T CT C TTTACCAA AAACATCACC C CTAGCAT SHLP4 (11) Orangutan AAGGAAAGGTTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAAC 276 TC A GCAAATCTTACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAAA AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (12) Orangutan AGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACT 277 CGGCAAATCT C ACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAA AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (17 a ) Orangutan ATAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGA 278 ACTCGGCAAATCT C ACCCCGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Orangutan TAAGGAAAG A TTACAAA C AGTAAAAGGAA 279 (17 b ) CTCGGCAAATCTTACCC A GCTTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (17 c ) Orangutan TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 280 CT T GGCAAATCTTATCCCGCCTATTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (20) Orangutan TAAGGAAA CATTAC AAAAAAGAAAAGGAA 281 CTC A GCAAATCTTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (X) Orangutan TAAGGAAAG AA TACAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 282 CTC C GCAAAT T TTACCCC A CCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (1 a ) Rhesus GGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAACT T 283 GGCAAA CTCAA ACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAA AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (1 b ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGA G 284 CTCGGCAAATCTTAC T C G GCCTGTTTACCAA AAATATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (3) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGGAAAAG G AA 285 CTC A GCAAAT T TTACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (5 a ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 286 CTCGGCAAACTTA AC CCCCGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (5 b ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAG T TTA C AAAAAGT G AAAGGAA 287 CTC A GCAAATCTTACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (5 c ) Rhesus TAAGGAA GAC T GC AAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 288 C AT GGCAAATCTTACCCC AT CTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (6 a ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 289 CTCGGCAAA CTCAA ACCCCGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (6 b ) Rhesus TCTTAAGGAAAGGTT A AAAAAAAGTAAAA 290 GGAACTCGGCAAATCT A ACCCC A CCTGTTT ACCAAAAACATCACCTC C AGC SHLP4 (6 c ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAA G GTAAAAGGAA 291 CTCGGCAAA CTCAA ACCCCGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8 a ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 292 CTCGGCAAA CT T A ACCCCGCCT A TTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8 b ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAA C TAAAAGGAA 293 CTC T GCAAATCTTA T CCC A CCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8 c ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAG A T A A C AAAA G GTAAAAGGAA 294 CT T GGCAAATCTTA T CCC A CCT AC TTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (9 a ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTA C AAAAAGTAAAAG A AA 295 CTCGGCAAAT T T C ACCCCG T CTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACC C CTAGCAT SHLP4 (9 b ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 296 T TC A GCAAATCTTAC A CTGCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (9 c ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 297 CTCGGCAAAT TTTAGCCT CCTGTTTACC G AA ATCATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (10 a ) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 298 CT T GGCAAAT T TTACCC G GCCTGTTTACCA G AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Rhesus TAAGGAAA CA TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 299 (10 b ) CT T GGCAAATC C TACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCAC G TCTAGCAT SHLP4 Rhesus TAAGGAAA TA TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 300 (13 a ) TT T GGCAAATC A TACCC T GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (14) Rhesus AAGGAAAG T TTA C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAAC 301 TC A GC C AATCTTAC T C T GCCTGTTTACCAAA AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (15) Rhesus TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AA T AAGTAAAAGGAA 302 CTC A GCAAATCT A ACCC T GCCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (18) Rhesus TAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 303 CTC AA CAAA CT T A ACCCCGCCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACC A CTAGCAT SHLP4 (16) Rhesus TCTTAAGGAAAGGTTAAAAAAAGTAAAAG 304 GAACTCGGCAAA CTTAA ACCCC A CCTGTTT ACCAAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (20) Rhesus TAAGGAAAG A TTA C AAAAAGTA T AAGGAA 305 CTCGGAAATCTTACCCC A CCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (X) Rhesus TAAGGAAAG AAC A C AAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 306 CT T GGCAAAT T TTACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (M) Mouse AAGGAAAG ATCC AAAAAG A TAAAAGGAAC 307 TCGGCAAA CAAGA ACCCCGCCTGTTTACCA AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (M) Rat TAAGGAAAG T TTAAAAAAGTAAAGGAACT 308 CGGCAAA CACGA ACCCCGCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATC T CCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (M, Guinea GGAAAG AC AAAA C AAAG C AAAAGGAACTC 309 701 a-b , 953 a-b , Pig GGCAAA CACAAAT CCCGCCTGTTTACCAAA 1260, AACATCACCTCTAGCAT 1738, 1772, 1912, 2039, 2262, 2354, 2542, 2574, 2887) SHLP4 (13) Guinea AGGAAAG ACG AAA C AAAG C AAAAGGAACT 310 Pig CGGCAAA CATAAATCCT GCCTGTTTACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (35) Guinea AGGAAAG A T G AAA C AAAG C AAAAGGAACT 311 Pig CGGCAAA CACAAAT CCCGCCTG A T A ACCAA AAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (86) Guinea AGGAAAG ACAAAAAAA AAAAAAAG GC AAA 312 Pig AGGAAC A CGGCAAA CACAAAT CCCGCCTGT TTACCAAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Guinea GGAAAGA C AAAAAG C AAAAGGAACTCGG T 313 (141) Pig AAACATAAATCCT GCCTGTTTACCAAAAAC ATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Guinea GGAAAG AC AAAA C AAAG C AAAAGGAACTC 314 (243) Pig GGCAAA CACAAAT CCCGCCTGTTTA A CCAA AAACA C CACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Guinea AGGAAAG AC AAAA C AAAG C AAAAGGAACT 315 (701) Pig CGGCAAA CACAAAT CCCGCCTGTTACCAAA AACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Cat GGAAAG A TTAAAA G AAGTAAAAGGAACTC 316 (18811, GGCAAA CACAAG CCCCGCCTGTTTACCAAA 18812, AACATCACCTCTAGCAT 30562, 112167 a-e ) SHLP4 Cat TAAGGAAAG A TTAAA GG AAGT G AAAGGAA 317 (37160) CT T GGCAAAT GCAA ACCCCGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Cat AAGGAAAG A T G AAA C AAAGTAAAAGGAAC 318 (44282, TC AGCGAACACAA ACCCC A CCTGTTTACCA 93736) G TAA A ATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Cat ATAAGGAAAG A TTAAAA G AAGTAAAAGGA 319 (112168) ACTCGGCAAA CACAAGT CCCGCCTGTTTAC C G AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 Cat GGAAAG A TTAAAA G AAGTAAAAGGAACTC 320 (172769) GGCAAA CACAAGCCT CGCCTGTTTACCAAA AACATCACCTCTA A CAT SHLP4 (M) Horse ATAAGGAAAG A TTAAAA G AAGTAAAAGGA 321 ACTCGGCAAA CACAA ACCCCGCCTGTTTAC CAAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (1) Horse CATAAGGAAAG A TTAAAA G AAGTAAAAGG 322 AACTCGGCAAA CACAA ACCCCGC A TGTTTA CC G AAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (8) Horse TAAGGAAAG A TT T AAAAAAGTAAAAGGAA 323 CTC A GCAAA CACAAACT CCGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATCACCTCTAGCAT SHLP4 (M) Platypus TAAGGAAAG A TTAAAA GG AGTAAAAGGAA 324 CTCGGCAAA CTAGGATTT CGCCTGTTTACC AAAAACATC G CCTCTAGCAT SHLP6 (M) Chimp ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCC G ATGGTGCAG 325 CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (1) Chimp ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCC G ATGGTGCAG 326 CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (4a) Chimp ATGTTGGATCAGGACAT G C TG ATGGTGCAG 327 CCGCTAT C AAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT SHLP6 (4b) Chimp ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCTAATGGTGCAG 328 C T GCTATTAA G GGTT T GTTT C TTCA GT GATT AA SHLP6 (5) Chimp ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCC G ATGGTGCAG 329 CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (7) Chimp ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCTGATGGTGCAG 330 CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (9) Chimp ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCC G ATGGTGCAG 331 CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (17) Chimp ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 332 CCG G TATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAA T GATTA SHLP6 (M) Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 333 CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (4a) Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTG T AG 334 C T GCTAT C AA G GGTTCGTTTGTTC C A T GATT AA SHLP6 (4b) Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC TG ATGGTGCAG 335 CCGCTAT C AAAG T TTC A TTTGTTCAAC SHLP6 (4c) Orangutan ATGTTGGATCA C G T CATCC T AATGGTG T A A 336 C T GCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTC G ACGATT G A SHLP6 (9) Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTG T AG 337 CC A CTATTAA G GGTTCGTTT A TTCAAC A ATT AA SHLP6 (11) Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTG T AG 338 C T GCTATTAA G GGTT TA TTTGTTCAAC A ATT AA SHLP6 Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCCAATGGTGCAG 339 (13a) CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTG T AG 340 (13b) C T GCTAT C AA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAA T GATTA SHLP6 (14) Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTG T AG 341 CCGCTA A TAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAA SHLP6 Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 342 (17a) CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 343 (17b) CCGCTATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAA T GATTA SHLP6 Orangutan ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCCAA G GGTGCAG 344 (17c) C T GCTATTAAAG T TTCGTTTGTTCAA T GATTA SHLP6 (1, Rhesus ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 345 2, 4, 5, 6, C A GCTAT C AA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT 13) AA SHLP6 (5) Rhesus ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 346 C A GCTAT C AA G GGTTC T TTTGTTCAAC A ATT AA SHLP6 (8) Rhesus ATGTTG C ATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTG T AG 347 CCGCTAT C AAGGGTTCGTTTGTTCAA T GATT AA SHLP6 (18) Rhesus ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC TG ATGGTG T AG 348 C A GCTAT C AA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Mouse ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCCAATGGTG T AG 349 AA GCTATTAA T GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Rat ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCCAATGGTGCAG 350 AA GCTATTAA T GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Opossum ATGTTGGATCAGGACA C CCCAATGGTGCAG 351 (unknown) CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Platypus ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC A AATGGTGCAG 352 (unknown) CCGCTATTAA T GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Guinea ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 353 (M, 35, 48, Pig C A GCTATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT 701 a-c , 953 a-b , AA 1260, 1486, 1738, 1772, 1912, 2039, 2262, 2354, 2574, 2887) SHLP6 (13) Guinea ATGTTGGATC T GG T CATCC T AATGGTGCAG 354 Pig CCGCTAT CG A G GGT C CGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (79) Guinea ATG C TGGATCAGGAC G TCC T AATGG G GCAG 355 Pig CC A CTATTAA GT GTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT G A SHLP6 (86) Guinea ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCTAATGGTG AG G 356 Pig C G GCTATTAA G GGTTC AC TTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Guinea ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 357 (243) Pig C A GCTATT G A G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Cat ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCC G ATGGTGCAG 358 (18811, C A GCTAT C AAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT 18812) AA SHLP6 Cat ATGTTGGATCA A GACATCCCAAT A GT A CAG 359 (30562, C A GCTAT C AAAGGTT T GTTTGTTCAACGATT 66390, AA 112167 a-e ) SHLP6 Cat ATGTTGGATCA A GACATCCCAAT A GT A CAG 360 (37160) C A GCTAT C AAAGGTT T GTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Cat ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCC G ATGGTGCAG 361 (63432) CAGCTAT C AAAG T TTCGTTTGTTCAAC SHLP6 Cat ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCCC G ATGGTGCAG 362 (92191) C A GCTA GCG AAGGTTCGTTTGTT GG ACGAT TAA SHLP6 (M) Dog ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 363 C A GCTATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTC A ACGATT AA SHLP6 (X) Dog ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 364 C A GCTATTAA G GGTT A GTTTGTTCAAC A ATT AA SHLP6 (M) Horse ATGTTGGATCA A GACATCC T AATGGTGCA A 365 CCGCTATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (1) Horse ATGTTGGATCA A GACATCCTAATGGTGCA A 366 CCGCTATTAA G GGTT T GTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Cow ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T GATGGTGCA A 367 CCGCTAT C AAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Chicken ATGTTGGATCAGGACA A CC T AATGGTGCA A 368 CCGCTATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Zebra ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T A G TGGTGCAG 369 Finch CCGCTA C TAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (2) Zebra ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T A G TGGTGCAG 370 Finch CC A CTA C TAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAA T GATT T A SHLP6 Lizard ATGTTGGATCAGGACA C CC A AATGGTGCAG 371 (927 a-b , CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT 2224 a-b ) AA SHLP6 X. tropicalis ATGTTGGATCAGG G CATCCCA G TGGTGCAG 372 (18215) CCGCTA C TAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Zebrafish ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 373 CCGCTATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 Tetradon ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 374 (unknown) CCGCTATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Fugu ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 375 CCGCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Stickleback ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 376 CCGCTATTAA G GGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA SHLP6 (M) Medaka ATGTTGGATCAGGACATCC T AATGGTGCAG 377 CCGCTATTAA G GGTTTGTT T GTTCAAC A ATT AA SHLP6 (M) Lamprey ATGTTGGATC G GG G CA C CCCAATGG C GCA A 378 AA GCTATTAAAGGTTCGTTTGTTCAACGATT AA In one aspect, novel peptides are provided herein comprising an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 8-13, representing human SHLPs 1-6, respectively. Also provided herein are peptide variants of SHLPs comprising an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 8-13, representing human SHLPs 1-6, respectively, which is modified by the insertion, deletion, substitution, and/or addition of one or more amino acid residues. Peptides corresponding to SHLPs 1-6 and variants thereof are collectively referred to herein as “SHLPs.” In addition, reference to a particular SHLP (e.g., SHLP6) includes the named SHLP as well as variants thereof. SHLPs provided herein may be derived from nuclear (genomic) DNA and/or mitochondrial DNA. As used herein, the term “polynucleotide” means a polymeric form of nucleotides of at least 10 bases or base pairs in length, either ribonucleotides or deoxynucleotides or a modified form of either type of nucleotide, including single and double stranded forms of DNA. The terms “polypeptide,” “peptide,” and “protein” are used interchangeably herein to refer to a polymer of amino acid residues. The terms apply to amino acid polymers in which one or more amino acid residue is an artificial chemical mimetic of a corresponding naturally occurring amino acid, as well as to naturally occurring amino acid polymers and non-naturally occurring amino acid polymer. The term “amino acid” refers to naturally occurring and synthetic amino acids, as well as amino acid analogs and amino acid mimetics that function in a manner similar to the naturally occurring amino acids. Naturally occurring amino acids are those encoded by the genetic code, as well as naturally occurring amino acids that are later modified, e.g., hydroxyproline, γ-carboxyglutamate, and O-phosphoserine. Amino acid analogs are compounds that have the same basic chemical structure as a naturally occurring amino acid, i.e., an α carbon that is bound to a hydrogen, a carboxyl group, an amino group, and an R group, e.g., homoserine, norleucine, methionine sulfoxide, methionine methyl sulfonium, where the peptide backbone and/or the R group are modified while the compound retains the same basic chemical structure as a naturally occurring amino acid. Amino acid mimetics refer to chemical compounds that have a structure that differs from the general chemical structure of an amino acid, but that functions in a manner similar to a naturally occurring amino acid. The term “endogenous” refers to a protein, nucleic acid, lipid or other biomolecule produced or originating within the body or within cells, organs, or tissues of the body of a subject. In some aspects, SHLPs referred to herein comprise endogenous peptides encoded by the ORFs indicated in Table 1. Endogenous SHLPs provided herein can be from any species and are preferably from a mammal. In some preferred aspects, endogenous SHLP nucleic acids and peptides provided herein are human SHLP nucleic acids and peptides. The term “exogenous” refers a protein, nucleic acid, lipid, or other biomolecule originating outside the body of a subject. In some aspects, an “isolated” or “purified” SHLP or variants thereof is substantially free of cellular material or other contaminating proteins from the cell or tissue source from which the protein is derived, or substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized. For example, having less than about 30%, 20%, 10%, or 5% (by dry weight) of heterologous protein (also referred to herein as a “contaminating protein”), culture medium, and/or chemical precursors or other chemicals. In some preferred aspects, SHLPs provided herein are functionally equivalent to endogenous SHLPs of SEQ ID NO:8-13 in that they possess at least one common structural and/or functional activity in a biological system, such as a cellular or animal model described herein. In some preferred aspects, variants of SHLPs provided herein exhibit one or more physiological or therapeutic activities associated with the corresponding human SHLP. Unless otherwise indicated, an activity of substantially the same quality or nature of that observed for a corresponding SHLP is sufficient to define a peptide as a variant of the SHLP. In some aspects, functionally equivalent SHLPs comprise amino acid sequences which differ from SEQ ID NOs: 8-13 in the identities of no more than 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 nonessential amino acid residues. In further aspects, functionally equivalent SHLPs comprise amino acid sequences which differ from SEQ ID NOs: 8-13 in the identities of no more than three, or preferably no more than two, or more preferably no more than one essential amino acid residues. In some aspects, SHLPs provided herein have neuroprotective activity against cell death associated with one or more neurodegenerative disease-related insults, such as but not limited to, cell death induced by mutant SOD1 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mutant APP, PS-1, PS-22, and/or amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in Alzheimer's disease, and/or polyglutamine repeat mutations in Huntington's disease. In further aspects, SHLPs have general neuroprotective activity against a broad range of insults, including but not limited to, NMDA-induced excitotoxicity, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or prion peptide-induced apoptosis. Methods for assaying peptides for neuroprotective activity are described herein and are known in the art, including, e.g., in Hashimoto et al., J. Neuroscience, 21(23):9235-9245 (2001), Hashimoto et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 98:6336-6341 (2001)), Caricasole et al., FASEB J., 16:1131-1133 (2002), Sponne et al., Mol. Cell. Neurosci., 25:95-102 (2004), and Niikura et al., Current Neuropharmacol., 4:139-147 (2006), all of which are herein incorporated by reference. In further aspects, SHLPs provided herein have neuroprotective activity against neurotoxicity in the peripheral nervous system, such as but not limited to, neurotoxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents, radiation therapy, anti-infective agents, and/or other therapeutics. For example, in various aspects, SHLPs provided herein may exert neuroprotective activity against peripheral neurotoxicity associated with Vinca alkaloids, platinum compounds, suramin, taxanes, and/or other chemotherapeutic agents. In some aspects, SHLPs provided herein exhibit cell survival promoting (e.g., anti-apoptotic) activity against disease-associated cells and/or stimuli, such as but not limited to, cells of subjects suffering from diabetes, kidney disease, and/or cancer. For example, in some aspects, SHLPs have anti-apoptotic activity against pancreatic β-cells of diabetic subjects and/or tumor cells. Methods for assaying peptides for anti-apoptotic activity are described herein and are known in the art, including, e.g., Ikonen et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100:13042-13047 (2003)), which is herein incorporated by reference. In some aspects, SHLPs inhibit IGFBP-3-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells of diabetic subjects. Methods for assaying binding to IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-3-induced cell death are known in the art and are described, e.g., in Ikonen et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100:13042-13047 (2003)), which is herein incorporated by reference. In further aspects, SHLP activity is independent of IGFBP-3. In further aspects, SHLPs provided herein have cell growth-stimulating activity against disease-associated cells, such as but not limited to, pancreatic β-cells of diabetic subjects. In further aspects, SHLPs provided herein have differentiation-stimulating activity against disease-associated cells. For example, in some aspects, SHLPs stimulate insulin-induced differentiation of adipocytes from diabetic patients. In some aspects, SHLPs provided herein are capable of homo- and/or hetero-dimerizing and/or multimerizing with one or more peptides, such as but not limited to, another SHLP or humanin (HN). Methods for assaying peptides for dimerization and multimerization are known in the art and are described, e.g., in U.S. Pat. Pub. No. 2005/0233413, which is herein incorporated by reference. In some aspects, one or more activities of an SHLP are dimerization- and/or multimerization-dependent. In further aspects, SHLPs provided herein are subject to secretion by one or more cell types. Methods for assaying peptide secretory activity are known in the art and are described, e.g., in U.S. Pat. No. 7,314,864, which is herein incorporated by reference. In some aspects, one or more activities of an SHLP are dependent on secretory activity. In some aspects, SHLPs provided herein have one or more cell protective activities. For example, in some aspects, SHLPs are capable of enhancing resistance to environmental stress, such as but not limited to, heat shock, serum withdrawal, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. In further aspects, SHLPs provided herein are capable of inhibiting intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods for assaying peptides for stress resistance activity are described herein and are known in the art, including, e.g., Ikonen et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 100:13042-13047 (2003) and Kariya et al., Neuroreport., 13:903-907 (2002), both of which are herein incorporated by reference. In some aspects, SHLPs provided herein have anticancer activity. For example, in some aspects, SHLPs have pro-apoptotic activity against cancer cells, such as but not limited to, prostate cancer cells and/or breast cancer cells. In further aspects, SHLPs have anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells, such as but not limited to, prostate cancer cells and/or breast cancer cells. Methods for assaying SHLPs described herein for anticancer activity against additional cancers are known in the art and various well characterized human cancer cell lines can be obtained from, e.g., the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). In further aspects, SHLPs provided herein have anticancer activity in vivo. For example, in some aspects, SHLPs have growth inhibitory activity against tumors in vivo, such as but not limited to, prostate cancer tumors. In further aspects, SHLPs increase apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis, and/or reduce proliferation of tumors and/or tumor cells, such as but not limited to, prostate cancer tumors. Methods for assaying peptides for anticancer activity are described herein and are well known in the art. In some aspects, SHLPs provided herein modulate the expression of one or more cancer-related genes, such as but not limited to, apoptosis genes, metastasis genes, and/or angiogenesis genes. For example, in various aspects, SHLPs modulate the expression of one or more cancer-related genes set forth in Table 8. SHLP nucleic acids and peptides include fragments of full-length (e.g., naturally occurring) SHLP nucleic acids and peptides. The invention also provides chimeric or fusion proteins. As used herein, a “chimeric protein” or “fusion protein” comprises an SHLP or variant thereof operably linked to a heterologous polypeptide (i.e., a polypeptide other than the SHLP or variant thereof). Within the fusion protein, the term “operably linked” indicates that the heterologous polypeptide is fused in-frame to the SHLP, via the N-terminus and/or C-terminus of the SHLP. Fusion proteins may be produced by peptide synthesis or by expressing recombinant DNA. Examples of polypeptides that may comprise a fusion protein provided herein include, but are not limited to, tags, leader sequences, signal peptides, green fluorescent proteins (GFP), maltose-binding proteins, glutathione S-transferase (GST), antibodies and antibody fragments. Fusion polypeptides are typically intended to facilitate polypeptide purification. For example, a leader sequence or signal peptide can induce extracellular secretion of a fusion polypeptide by genetically engineered host cells. Examples of purification tags and the like that are known in the art include, e.g., FLAG, 6×His, 10×His, influenza hemagglutinin (HA), VSV-GP fragments, T7-tag, HSV-tag, and E-tag. SHLPs also include salts of peptides provided herein, including acid-addition salts and base-addition salts. Examples of acid-addition salts include: salts of mineral acids such as hydrochloride, sulfate, nitrate, hydrobromide, and phosphate; and salts of organic acids such as acetate, butyrate, succinate, citrate, oxalate, malate, methanesulfonate, benzoate, maleate, and tartrate. Examples of base-addition salts include: alkali metal salts (e.g., sodium salts and potassium salts) and alkaline-earth metal salts (e.g., calcium salts and magnesium salts); and salts formed with organic bases such as ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium salts, methylammonium salts and triethylammonium salts) and amino acid salts (e.g., lysine salts and arginine salts). SHLPs also include hydrates and solvates of peptides provided herein. In some aspects, an SHLP or variant thereof is at least about 30%, preferably 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 65%, 75%, 85%, 95% or 98% identical to an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 8-13. In some aspects, an SHLP provided herein has an amino acid sequence which is “substantially identical” to the sequence of the corresponding human SHLP, in that the sequence is at least about 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, or 98% or more identical to the sequence of a reference sequence, such as the corresponding endogenous human SHLP. In further aspects, an SHLP or variant thereof comprises at least 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, or more contiguous amino acids of an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 8-13. In another aspect, the invention pertains to isolated nucleic acid molecules that encode an SHLP or a variant thereof. As used herein, the term “nucleic acid” is intended to include DNA molecules (e.g., cDNA or genomic DNA), RNA molecules (e.g., mRNA), and analogs of the DNA or RNA, such as those generated using nucleotide analogs. The nucleic acid molecules can be single-stranded or double-stranded, and in some aspects are double-stranded DNA. SHLP nucleic acids provided herein include, but are not limited to, probes and primers for detecting and/or amplifying DNAs and RNAs encoding an SHLP. SHLP nucleic acids provided herein also include nucleotides and nucleotide derivatives (for example, antisense oligonucleotides, DNAs encoding ribozymes, and the like) for modulating the expression of an SHLP. Another aspect of the invention provides vectors, e.g., recombinant expression vectors, comprising a nucleic acid molecule of the invention. In another aspect, the invention provides host cells containing such a vector or engineered to contain and/or express a nucleic acid molecule of the invention. The invention also provides methods for producing a polypeptide of the invention by culturing, in a suitable medium, a host cell of the invention such that a polypeptide of the invention is produced. In some aspects, an SHLP nucleic acid is identical, or at least 50%, 55%, 65%, 75%, 85%, 95%, or 98% identical to a sequence selected from SEQ ID NOS: 1-6, wherein the human mitochondrial DNA of Table 1 is accession number AF346981.1. The degree of similarity between a nucleic acid sequence and one or more reference nucleic acid sequences can be expressed in terms of conditions under which the nucleic acid would hybridize to the reference nucleic acid. For example, in some aspects, an SHLP nucleic acid or variant thereof hybridizes under stringent conditions to a nucleotide sequence of Table 1 or a sequence selected from SEQ ID NOS: 1-6, or to a complement thereof. In various preferred aspects, an SHLP nucleic acid encodes a polypeptide that exhibits at least one structural and/or functional feature of an SHLP. The phrase “stringent hybridization conditions” generally refers to conditions under which a probe will hybridize to its target subsequence, typically in a complex mixture of nucleic acids, but to no other sequences. In some aspects, “stringent hybridization conditions” are conditions for hybridization and washing under which nucleotide sequences at least 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, or more identity typically remain hybridized. Stringent conditions are known to those skilled in the art and can be found, e.g., in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. (1989), 6.3.1-6.3.6. Stringent conditions are sequence-dependent and will be different in different circumstances. Longer sequences hybridize specifically at higher temperatures. An extensive guide to the hybridization of nucleic acids is found in Tijssen, Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology—Hybridization with Nucleic Probes, “Overview of principles of hybridization and the strategy of nucleic acid assays” (1993). Generally, stringent conditions are selected to be about 5-10° C. lower than the thermal melting point (Tm) for the specific sequence at a defined ionic strength pH. The Tm is the temperature (under defined ionic strength, pH, and nucleic concentration) at which 50% of the probes complementary to the target hybridize to the target sequence at equilibrium (as the target sequences are present in excess, at Tm, 50% of the probes are occupied at equilibrium). Stringent conditions can also be achieved with the addition of destabilizing agents such as formamide. For selective or specific hybridization, a positive signal is at least two times background, preferably 10 times background hybridization. Exemplary stringent hybridization conditions can be as following: 50% formamide, 5×SSC, and 1% SDS, incubating at 42° C., or, 5×SSC, 1% SDS, incubating at 65° C., with wash in 0.2×SSC, and 0.1% SDS at 65° C. A preferred, non-limiting example of stringent hybridization conditions are hybridization in 6× sodium chloride/sodium citrate (SSC) at about 45 C., followed by one or more washes in 0.2×SSC, 0.1% SDS at 50-65 C. In various preferred aspects, the SHLP nucleic acid or variant thereof encodes a polypeptide that exhibits at least one structural and/or functional feature of an SHLP. Nucleic acids that do not hybridize to each other under stringent conditions are still substantially identical if the polypeptides which they encode are substantially identical. This occurs, for example, when a copy of a nucleic acid is created using the maximum codon degeneracy permitted by the genetic code. In such cases, the nucleic acids typically hybridize under moderately stringent hybridization conditions. Exemplary “moderately stringent hybridization conditions” include a hybridization in a buffer of 40% formamide, 1 M NaCl, 1% SDS at 37° C., and a wash in 1×SSC at 45° C. A positive hybridization is at least twice background. Those of ordinary skill will readily recognize that alternative hybridization and wash conditions can be utilized to provide conditions of similar stringency. For PCR, a temperature of about 36° C. is typical for low stringency amplification, although annealing temperatures can vary between about 32° C. and 48° C. depending on primer length. For high stringency PCR amplification, a temperature of about 62° C. is typical, although high stringency annealing temperatures can range from about 50° C. to about 65° C., depending on the primer length and specificity. Typical cycle conditions for both high and low stringency amplifications include a denaturation phase of 90° C.-95° C. for 30 sec-2 min., an annealing phase lasting 30 seconds to 2 min., and an extension phase of about 72° C. for 1-2 min. Protocols and guidelines for low and high stringency amplification reactions are provided, e.g., in Innis et al PCR Protocols, A Guide to Methods and Applications, Academic Press, Inc. N.Y. (1990). In some aspects, SHLP nucleic acids provided herein comprise antisense to the coding strand of a nucleic acid described herein. An “isolated” nucleic acid molecule is one which is separated from other nucleic acid molecules that are present in the natural source of the nucleic acid molecule. Preferably, an “isolated” nucleic acid molecule is free of sequences (preferably protein encoding sequences) which naturally flank the nucleic acid (e.g., sequences located at the 5′ and 3′ ends of the nucleic acid) in the genomic DNA of the organism from which the nucleic acid is derived. Moreover, an “isolated” nucleic acid molecule, such as a cDNA molecule, can be substantially free of other cellular material, or culture medium when produced by recombinant techniques, or substantially free of chemical precursors or other chemicals when chemically synthesized. Nucleic acid molecules provided herein can be isolated using standard hybridization and cloning techniques (e.g., as described in Sambrook et al., eds., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed., Cold Spring Harbor, Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1989). A nucleic acid molecule encoding a variant SHLP can be created by introducing one or more nucleotide substitutions, additions or deletions into an SHLP nucleotide sequence provided herein, such that one or more amino acid substitutions, additions or deletions are introduced into the encoded protein. Mutations can be introduced by standard techniques, such as site-directed mutagenesis and PCR-mediated mutagenesis. In some aspects, isolated nucleic acids provided herein encompass mutants having at least about 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, or 99% or higher identity to a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NOs: 1-6, representing the codings sequences of human SHLPs 1-6, respectively. In some preferred aspects, SHLPs provided herein are limited to one or more (e.g., preferably less than 3, less than 2, or 1) conservative amino acid substitutions. In further aspects, the conservative amino acid substitution(s) are at one or more non-essential amino acid residues. In some aspects, one or more residues are determined as being non-essential for one or more biological activities of an SHLP, for example by making a series of peptides with random mutations along the length of the sequence, and screening the peptides for the biological activity. A “conservative amino acid substitution” is one in which the amino acid residue is replaced with an amino acid residue having a similar side chain. Amino acid substitutions may be made on the basis of similarity in polarity, charge, solubility, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, and/or amphipathic nature. Families of amino acid residues having similar side chains have been defined in the art and include amino acids with basic side chains (e.g., lysine, arginine, histidine), acidic side chains (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid), uncharged polar side chains (e.g., glycine, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, cysteine), nonpolar side chains (e.g., alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, methionine, tryptophan), beta-branched side chains (e.g., threonine, valine, isoleucine) and aromatic side chains (e.g., tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine). A predicted nonessential amino acid residue in an SHLP polypeptide can typically be replaced with another amino acid residue from the same side chain family. In some aspects, a conservative variant of a nucleic acid or amino acid sequence provided herein comprises one or more conservative substitutions relative to a reference sequence at non-essential amino acids or codons coding for non-essential amino acids. A “non-essential” amino acid residue is a residue that can be altered from the wild-type sequence (e.g., a sequence of SEQ ID NO: 8-13) without abolishing or substantially altering the therapeutic activity of the peptide, whereas an “essential” amino acid residue is a residue cannot be altered without introducing such a change. In some aspects, variant amino acid and/or nucleic acid sequences provided herein are “conservatively modified” variants of a reference sequence, such as an endogenous SHLP sequence. With respect to particular nucleic acid sequences, conservatively modified variants refers to those nucleic acids which encode identical or essentially identical amino acid sequences, or where the nucleic acid does not encode an amino acid sequence, to essentially identical sequences. Because of the degeneracy of the genetic code, a large number of functionally identical nucleic acids encode any given protein. For instance, the codons GCA, GCC, GCG and GCU all encode the amino acid alanine. Thus, at every position where an alanine is specified by a codon, the codon can be altered to any of the corresponding codons described without altering the encoded polypeptide. Such nucleic acid variations are “silent variations,” which are one species of conservatively modified variations. Nucleic acid sequences described herein which encode a polypeptide include all possible silent variations of the nucleic acid. One of skill in the art will recognize that each codon in a nucleic acid (except AUG, which is ordinarily the only codon for methionine, and TGG, which is ordinarily the only codon for tryptophan) can be modified to yield a functionally identical molecule. Accordingly, each silent variation of a nucleic acid which encodes a polypeptide is implicit in each described sequence with respect to the expression product, but not with respect to actual probe sequences. Conservatively modified variants provided herein are in addition to and do not exclude polymorphic variants, interspecies homologs, and alleles of the invention. The terms “identical” or percent “identity,” in the context of two or more nucleic acids or polypeptide sequences, refers to two or more sequences or subsequences that are the same or have a specified percentage of amino acid residues or nucleotides that are the same when compared and aligned for maximum correspondence over a comparison window or designated region. Methods of aligning sequences for comparison are well-known in the art. Optimal alignment of sequences for comparison can be conducted, e.g., by the local homology algorithm of Smith & Waterman, Adv. Appl. Math., 1981, 2:482, by the homology alignment algorithm of Needleman & Wunsch, J. Mol. Biol., 1970, 48:443, by the search for similarity method of Pearson & Lipman, Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA, 1988, 85:2444, by computerized implementations of these algorithms (GAP, BESTFIT, FASTA, and TFASTA in the Wisconsin Genetics Software Package, Genetics Computer Group, 575 Science Dr., Madison, Wis.), or by manual alignment and visual inspection (see, e.g., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Ausubel et al., eds. 1995 supplement)). Sequences referred to herein can be aligned and sequence identity and other quantitative comparison measures can be determined using the BLAST or BLAST 2.0 sequence comparison algorithms, which are described in Altschul et al., Nuc. Acids Res., 25: 3389-3402, 1977 and Altschul et al., J. Mol. Biol. 215: 403-410, 1990, respectively. Software for performing BLAST analyses is publicly available through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (found on the web at the site: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). This algorithm involves first identifying high scoring sequence pairs (HSPs) by identifying short words of length W in the query sequence, which either match or satisfy some positive-valued threshold score T when aligned with a word of the same length in a database sequence. T is referred to as the neighborhood word score threshold (Altschul et al., supra). These initial neighborhood word hits act as seeds for initiating searches to find longer HSPs containing them. The word hits are extended in both directions along each sequence for as far as the cumulative alignment score can be increased. Cumulative scores are calculated using, for nucleotide sequences, the parameters M (reward score for a pair of matching residues; always >0) and N (penalty score for mismatching residues; always <0). For amino acid sequences, a scoring matrix is used to calculate the cumulative score. Extension of the word hits in each direction are halted when: the cumulative alignment score falls off by the quantity X from its maximum achieved value; the cumulative score goes to zero or below, due to the accumulation of one or more negative-scoring residue alignments; or the end of either sequence is reached. The BLAST algorithm parameters W, T, and X determine the sensitivity and speed of the alignment. The BLASTN program (for nucleotide sequences) uses as defaults a wordlength (W) of 11, an expectation (E) of 10, M=5, N=−4 and a comparison of both strands. For amino acid sequences, the BLASTP program uses as defaults a wordlength of 3, and expectation (E) of 10, and the BLOSUM62 scoring matrix (see Henikoff & Henikoff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1989, 89:10915) alignments (B) of 50, expectation (E) of 10, M=5, N=−4, and a comparison of both strands. In some aspects, the percent identity of nucleic acid sequences is determined using the ALIGN program of the GCG software package with a PAM120 weight residue table, a gap length penalty of 12, and a gap penalty of 4. In other aspects, sequences can be aligned and compared by visual inspection, for example when dealing with short peptides. Unless an alternative window is specified, recited degree of identity is with respect to the full-length human SHLP. In some aspects, SHLPs provided herein have a specified degree of identity with a reference peptide. In the case of an polynucleotide which is longer than or equivalent in length to the reference sequence, the comparison is made with the full length of the reference sequence. Where the polynucleotide is shorter than the reference sequence, the comparison is made to segment of the reference sequence of the same length. SHLPs provided herein may be modified chemically and/or biologically. Examples of such modifications include, but are not limited to, functional group introduction such as alkylation, acylation, amidation, esterification, halogenation, amination, carboxylation, and pegylation, functional group conversion such as oxidation, reduction, addition, and elimination, glycosylation, lipid compound introduction, phosphorylation, and/or biotinylation. Such modification(s) may, for example, stabilize and/or enhance the biological activity an SHLP. SHLPs can be produced according to any peptide synthesis technique known in the art. For example, SHLPs can be synthesized by a variety of chemical methods such as the azide method, acid chloride method, acid anhydride method, mixed anhydride method, DCC method, activated ester method (e.g., P-nitrophenyl ester, N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, and cyanomethyl ester methods), methods using Woodward's reagent K, carboimidazole method, oxidation-reduction method, and DCC-additive (HONB, HOBt, or HOSu) method, as described, for example, in “The Peptides” Vol. 1 (1966) [Schroder and Lubke, Academic Press, New York, U.S.A.] or “Peptide Synthesis” [Izumiya et al., Maruzen Co., Ltd., (1975)]. Such methods can be applied to both solid-phase and liquid-phase syntheses. A variety of commercially available peptide synthesizers can be utilized in conjunction with solid phase synthetic methods. The synthesis can be performed more efficiently by protecting and deprotecting functional groups, if necessary, as described, e.g., in Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis (T. W. Greene, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1981). Peptides can be desalted and purified according to known methods, including but not limited to, ion-exchange chromatography (e.g., DEAE-cellulose), partition chromatography (e.g., Sephadex LH-20 and Sephadex G-25), normal phase chromatography (e.g., silica gel), reverse phase chromatography (e.g., ODS-silica gel), and high performance liquid chromatography. Nucleic acids provided herein can be used for producing the encoded SHLPs using recombinant expression methods known in the art. Typically, DNA encoding the polypeptide of interest is inserted into a recombinant vector containing cis elements (e.g., promoters and enhancers), splicing signals, polyA-addition signals, selective markers, ribosome-binding sequences (SD sequences), terminators, and the like to direct expression of the target nucleic acid. A prokaryotic or eukaryotic host cell is transformed with the vector, and the polypeptide of interest is separated and purified from the host cells or the host cell culture supernatant. Separation and purification of the polypeptide can be facilitated by optionally expressing the polypeptide in the form of a fusion polypeptide with a signal peptide for extracellular secretion and/or a tag for purification/detection. A signal peptide for extracellular secretion is preferably selected to be suitable for the host cell used for expression of the fusion protein. For example, if the host cell is an animal cell, the fusion protein could comprise a signal peptide from the N terminus of a growth and differentiation factor (e.g., a cytokine) or receptor thereof. A variety of host-vector systems are known in the art for use with prokaryotic and eukaryotic host cells (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis , yeast, Basidiomycetes, insect cells, plant cells, and mammal cells). Examples of such vectors include plasmid, phage, and virus vectors. Examples of therapeutic vectors include adenovirus vectors, adeno-associated virus vectors, herpes virus vectors, retrovirus vectors, and lentivirus vectors (e.g., Robbins and Ghivizzani, Pharmacol. Ther., 80: 35-37 (1998); Engel and Kohn, Front Biosci., 4: e26-33 (1999); and Lundstrom, J. Recept. Signal. Transduct. Res., 19: 673-686 (1999)). SHLPs provided herein include recombinant peptides (peptides made using recombinant techniques) in addition to synthetic and naturally occurring peptides. A recombinant protein can typically be distinguished from naturally occurring protein by one or more characteristics. For example, recombinant peptides can be isolated from some or all of the proteins and compounds with which it is normally associated in a wild type host. For example, isolated peptides provided herein are unaccompanied by at least some of the material with which they are normally associated in their natural state, typically constituting about 0.5% to about 5% by weight of the total protein in a given sample. In various aspects, a substantially pure peptide comprises at least about 75% by weight of the total protein, or at least about 80% by weight of the total protein, and typically at least about 90% by weight of the total protein. In another aspect, methods are provided for modulating activity of an SHLP comprising contacting a cell with an agent that modulates, inhibits, and/or stimulates the activity or expression of an SHLP, such that activity or expression in the cell is modulated. In one aspect, the agent is an antibody that specifically binds to an SHLP or variant thereof. In another aspect, the agent modulates expression of an SHLP or variant thereof by modulating transcription, splicing, or translation of an mRNA encoding an SHLP or variant thereof. In yet another aspect, the agent is a nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence that is antisense to the coding strand of an mRNA encoding an SHLP or variant thereof. In yet a further aspect, the invention provides substantially purified antibodies or fragments thereof, and non-human antibodies or fragments thereof, which antibodies or fragments specifically bind to an SHLP or variant thereof. Preferably, antibodies against one SHLP (e.g., SHLP6) recognize an epitope which is unique to that SHLP relative to other SHLPs (e.g., SHLP2), such that the antibodies show little or no cross-reactivity between SHLPs. In some aspects, antibodies provided herein are capable of reducing, eliminating, and/or otherwise modulating an activity of the SHLP to which it selectively binds. In various aspects, the substantially purified antibodies of the invention, or fragments thereof, can be human, non-human, chimeric and/or humanized antibodies. non-human antibodies can be goat, mouse, sheep, horse, chicken, rabbit, or rat antibodies. Alternatively, the non-human antibodies of the invention can be chimeric and/or humanized antibodies. In addition, the non-human antibodies of the invention can be polyclonal antibodies or monoclonal antibodies. In some aspects, anti-SHLP antibodies provided herein are polyclonal antibodies. Polyclonal antibodies can be produced by methods known to those of skill in the art. In brief, a suitable immunogen, for example, a purified peptide is mixed with an adjuvant and injected into a host animal. Antigenic determinants on polypeptides are typically 3 to 10 amino acids in length. Accordingly, the immunogen can be a peptide of 3 or more amino acids, or more typically of least 5 amino acids, or preferably of at least 10 amino acids in length. The peptide immunogen may be coupled to an appropriate carrier (e.g., GST and keyhole limpet hemocyanin) or incorporated into an immunization vector, such as a recombinant vaccinia virus (see, U.S. Pat. No. 4,722,848). The host's immune response to the immunogen preparation is monitored by taking test bleeds and determining the titer of reactivity to the peptide of interest. When appropriately high titers of antibody are obtained, blood is collected from the animal and antisera are prepared. Further fractionation of the antisera can be performed to enrich for antibodies reactive to the peptide of interest. See, e.g., Coligan, Current Protocols in Immunology, Wiley/Greene, NY, 1991; and Harlow and Lane, supra, each incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. In some aspects, an anti-SHLP antibody provided herein are monoclonal antibodies. The monoclonal antibodies can be prepared from a hybridoma which secretes an antibody having the desired reactivity and affinity. Immortalized antibody-producing cell lines can be obtained, for instance, from the Salk Institute Cell Distribution Center, San Diego, Calif. and the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Md. Human myeloma and mouse-human heteromyeloma cell lines also have been described for the production of human monoclonal antibodies (Kozbor, J. Immunol. 133:3001, 1984; Brodeur et al., Monoclonal Antibody Production Techniques and Applications, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1987, pp. 51-63, each incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). In some instances, it may be desirable to prepare monoclonal antibodies from a mammalian host, such as a mouse, a rodent, a primate, or a human. Methods for preparing monoclonal antibodies are described, e.g., in Stites et al. (eds.) Basic and Clinical Immunology (4th ed.) Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, Calif., and references cited therein; Harlow and Lane, Supra; Goding, 1986; Monoclonal Antibodies: Principles and Practice (2d ed.) Academic Press, New York, N.Y.; and Kohler et al., Nature 256: 495-497, 1975, each incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Also provided herein are methods of treating a subject having, or at risk of having, a disease or condition treatable by an SHLP by administering an effective amount of an SHLP or a pharmaceutical composition thereof to the subject. SHLPs provided herein can be administered by themselves, or they can be co-administered with one or more other agents, such as another agent provided herein or a different agent or agents. An SHLP and one or more additional agents can be co-administered simultaneously (in the same or separate formulations) or consecutively. Furthermore, SHLPs provided herein can be administered as an adjuvant therapy. In some aspects, an SHLP is co-administered with one or more of a different SHLP provided herein, humanin, or a variant of humanin, such as but not limited to, humanin-S14G, humanin GF6A, or colivelin. Methods provided herein can be used to treat any disease, condition, or disorder which is responsive to treatment with an SHLP. As used herein, “treating” includes, but is not limited to, prevention, amelioration, alleviation, and/or elimination of a disease, disorder, or condition being treated or one or more symptoms of the disease, disorder, or condition being treated, as well as improvement in the overall well being of a patient, as measured by objective and/or subjective criteria. A “subject” of a method provided herein refers to any mammalian patient to which peptides or compositions of the invention can be beneficially administered. The term mammal refers to both humans and non-human primates, as well as experimental or veterinary animals, such as rabbits, rats, mice, and other animals. In some aspects, a subject in need of treatment with an SHLP is identified using a screening method for determining risk factors associated with a targeted or suspected disease or condition or to determine the status of an existing disease or condition. In some aspects, an “effective amount” of an SHLP provided herein is an amount sufficient to provide a measurable reduction in symptoms or other beneficial effect with respect to a disease or condition targeted for treatment. In some aspects, methods are provided herein for treating a condition for which apoptotic cell death, inflammation, autoimmunity, angiogenesis, and/or metastasis is an etiological determinant. In some aspects, SHLPs are administered to treat a condition associated with cellular stress responses, such as but not limited to, the induction of heat shock proteins and/or metabolic and oxidative stress. The cellular stress response can be responsive to any stressor, including, e.g., thermal, immunological, cytokine, oxidative, metabolic, anoxic, endoplasmic reticulum, protein unfolding, nutritional, chemical, mechanical, osmotic and glycemic stresses. In some aspects, SHLPs are administered according to a method provided herein to treat an inflammatory condition, such as but not limited to, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, retinopathy, obesity, metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disease, gastrointestinal disease, autoimmune disease, rheumatological disease or infectious disease. In some aspects, the disease or condition is a neurodegenerative disease. Without being limited by a particular theory, it is believed that certain SHLPs provided herein have one or more activities capable of repairing and/or preventing neurodegenerative damage of neural cells and/or other cell types. In some aspects, the methods involving administering SHLP2, SHLP3, and/or a variant thereof to a subject suffering from a neurodegenerative disease. Advantageously, administering an SHLP according to methods provided herein provides a protective effect against neurodegenerative effects, including for example, cell death induced by the SOD1 mutant in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis subjects, mutant APP, PS-1, PS-22, or amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides in Alzheimer's disease subjects, and/or polyglutamine repeat mutations in Huntington's disease subjects. “Neurodegenerative diseases” treatable according to methods provided herein are progressive diseases resulting in the degeneration and/or loss of neurons, for example due to neuronal cell death (apoptosis). Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include, but are not limited to, cerebral degenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Huntington's disease (HD)), and spinal degenerative disease/motor neuron degenerative diseases (e.g., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), (SMA: Werdnig-Hoffmann disease or Kugelberg-Welander syndrome), spinocerebellar ataxia, bulbospinal muscular atrophy (BSMA: Kennedy-Alter-Sung syndrome)). A “motor neuron degenerative disease” is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive, retrograde disorder of upper and lower motor neurons that control motion in the body. In further aspects, SHLPs and compositions thereof are also effective in ameliorating conditions resulting from motor neuron degenerative disease, such as muscular atrophy, muscular weakness, bulbar palsy (muscular atrophy or weakness in the face, pharynx, and tongue, and aphasia or dysphagia caused thereby), muscular fasciculation, and respiratory disorder. In further aspects, methods are provided herein for treating diabetes and/or diabetes related complications by administering an effective amount of an SHLP to a patient in need of treatment. Diabetes is characterized by a progressive inability to manage glucose metabolism, leading to elevated plasma glucose levels. Secondary complications that arise after prolonged exposure to elevated blood sugar, including cardiovascular complications, kidney disease, and retinopathies, pose the greatest health risks to diabetic patients and impose significant economic and social costs globally. Patients with Type 1 diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), produce little or no insulin and therefore exhibit impaired glucose regulation and utilization. Patients with Type 2 diabetes, or noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), typically have normal or even elevated plasma insulin levels but exhibit decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on glucose metabolism. Currently available diabetes therapies focus on managing the patient's blood sugar levels, as there are no known therapies capable of ameliorating the underlying deficiencies in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. Without being limited by a particular theory, it is believed that glucose handling and metabolism is impaired in some diabetes patients due to damage and/or death of insulin producing pancreatic β cells and/or other cells involved in insulin signaling, and that SHLPs provided herein have one or more activities capable of preventing and/or repairing such effects. For example, β cells are selectively targeted and destroyed by autoimmune processes in many Type I diabetic patients. Advantageously, SHLPs used for treating diabetes and/or related complications according to methods provided herein have anti-apoptotic activity against and/or stimulate proliferation of pancreatic β cells, such that administering the SHLPs increases the number of insulin producing β cells and the level of insulin produced by the patient. In some preferred aspects, the methods comprise administering SHLP2, SHLP3, and/or a variant thereof. The present invention also includes methods of treating cancer comprising administering an effective amount of an SHLP or a variant thereof to a subject in need of treatment. In some preferred aspects, the methods comprise administering an effective amount of SHLP6 or a variant thereof. SHLPs provided herein exert a variety of anticancer effects and can be used to treat a wide range of cancers and other proliferative disorders. A “cancer” refers generally to a disease characterized by uncontrolled, abnormal cell growth and proliferation. A “tumor” or “neoplasm” is an abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive, uncontrolled, and progressive cell division. Methods described herein are useful for treating cancers and proliferative disorders of any type, including but not limited to, carcinomas, sarcomas, soft tissue sarcomas, lymphomas, hematological cancers, leukemias, germ cell tumors, and cancers without solid tumors (e.g., hematopoietic cancers). In various aspects, SHLPs can be used to treat cancers and/or tumors originating from and/or effecting any tissue, including but not limited to, lung, breast, epithelium, large bowel, rectum, testicle, bladder, thyroid, gallbladder, bile duct, biliary tract, prostate, colon, stomach, esophagus, pancreas, liver, kidney, uterus, cervix, ovary, and brain tissues. Non-limiting examples of specific cancers treatable with SHLPs include, but are not limited to, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, adrenocortical carcinoma, AIDS-related lymphoma, anal cancer, astrocytoma, cerebral basal cell carcinoma, bile duct cancer, extrahepatic bladder cancer, bladder cancer, bone cancer, osteosarcoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma, brain stem glioma, brain tumor, brain stem glioma, cerebral astrocytoma/malignant glioma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, visual pathway and hypothalamic glioma, breast cancer, male bronchial adenomas/carcinoids, Burkitt's lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, gastrointestinal carcinoma of unknown primary central nervous system lymphoma, cervical cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic myeloproliferative disorders, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, cutaneous t-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome, endometrial cancer, ependymoma, esophageal cancer, Ewing's family tumors, germ cell tumors, extrahepatic bile duct cancer, eye cancer, intraocular melanoma, retinoblastoma, gallbladder cancer, gastric (stomach) cancer, gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, ovarian gestational trophoblastic tumors, glioma, hypothalamic skin cancer (melanoma), skin cancer (non-melanoma), skin carcinoma, small cell lung cancer, small intestine cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, squamous neck cancer with occult primary, metastatic stomach (gastric) cancer, stomach (gastric) cancer, t-cell lymphoma, testicular cancer, thymoma, thymic carcinoma, thyroid cancer, transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis, ureter trophoblastic tumors, transitional cell cancer, urethral cancer, uterine cancer, uterine sarcoma, vaginal cancer, hypothalamic glioma, vulvar cancer, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Wilms' tumor, hairy cell leukemia, head and neck cancer, hepatocellular (liver) cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, hypopharyngeal cancer, islet cell carcinoma (endocrine pancreas), Kaposi's sarcoma, kidney (renal cell) cancer, kidney cancer, laryngeal cancer, hairy cell lip and oral cavity cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, cutaneous t-cell, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Waldenstrom's malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone/osteosarcoma medulloblastoma, intraocular (eye) merkel cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, malignant mesothelioma, metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm mycosis fungoides myelodysplastic syndromes, myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases, myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloproliferative disorders, chronic nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, pleuropulmonary blastoma, osteosarcoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone, pheochromocytoma, pineoblastoma, and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. In some preferred aspects, the cancer is breast cancer In some preferred aspects, the cancer is prostate cancer. SHLPs provided herein can have a variety of anticancer activities, such as but not limited to, inducing apoptosis in cancerous cells, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, inhibiting tumor metastasis, modulating the cell cycle, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, promoting cancer cell differentiation, inhibiting production of and/or protecting against reactive oxygen species, and enhancing stress resistance. In some aspects, administering an SHLP according to a method provided herein enhances efficacy and/or decreases adverse effects of an established cancer therapy. For example, in some aspects, administering an SHLP according to a method provided herein protects non-cancerous cells against the adverse effects of a non-specific cancer therapy, such as radiation or chemotherapy. In further aspects, administering an SHLP according to a method provided herein enhances the anticancer activity of another cancer therapy, such as radiation or chemotherapy. In some aspects, methods are provided herein for inducing cell death in cancer cells and/or tumor cells, the methods comprising administering an SHLP described herein in an amount sufficient to induce cancer and/or tumor cell death. In some aspects, the SHLP administered to treat cancer according to a method provided herein is SHLP6 or a variant thereof. Somatic mutations (Ruiz-Pesini et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 35 (Database issue): D823-D828 (2007)) at several positions in and adjacent to the SHLP6 coding region (which was previously thought to be non-coding DNA) have been associated with prostate cancer (position 2923; Jeronimo et al., Oncogene, 20(37): 5195-5198 (2001)), lung cancer (position 2998; Lorenc et al., Mitochondrion, 3(2): 119-124 (2003)) and colon cancer (position 3014; Taylor et al., Journal of Clinical Investigation 112(9): 1351-1360 (2003)). These findings indicate that dysregulation of SHLP6 may be a key step in the development or progression of certain cancers. In further aspects, the SHLP is any of SHLPs 1-6 or a variant thereof. The present invention also provides methods of treating a subject having a disorder characterized by aberrant activity and/or aberrant expression of an SHLP, SHLP nucleic acid, or variant thereof, by administering an agent which is a modulator of the activity of an SHLP or variant thereof or a modulator of the expression of an SHLP nucleic acid. Also provided herein are pharmaceutical compositions comprising one or more SHLPs and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient. Nucleic acids, polypeptides, and antibodies (“active compounds”) of the invention can be incorporated into pharmaceutical compositions suitable for administration. Such compositions typically comprise the nucleic acid molecule, protein, or antibody and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. As used herein the language “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” is intended to include any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents, and the like, compatible with pharmaceutical administration. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutically active substances is well known in the art. Except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the active compound, use thereof in the compositions is contemplated. Supplementary active compounds can also be incorporated into the compositions. A pharmaceutical composition of the invention is formulated to be compatible with its intended route of administration. Examples of routes of administration include parenteral, e.g., intravenous, intradermal, subcutaneous, oral (e.g., inhalation), transdermal (topical), transmucosal, and rectal administration. Solutions or suspensions used for parenteral, intradermal, or subcutaneous application can include the following components: a sterile diluent such as water for injection, saline solution, fixed oils, polyethylene glycols, glycerine, propylene glycol or other synthetic solvents; antibacterial agents such as benzyl alcohol or methyl parabens; antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or sodium bisulfite; chelating agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; buffers such as acetates, citrates or phosphates and agents for the adjustment of tonicity such as sodium chloride or dextrose. pH can be adjusted with acids or bases, such as hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide. The parenteral preparation can be enclosed in ampoules, disposable syringes or multiple dose vials made of glass or plastic. Pharmaceutical compositions suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions (where water soluble) or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. For intravenous administration, suitable carriers include physiological saline, bacteriostatic water, Cremophor EL (BASF; Parsippany, N.J.) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In all cases, the composition must be sterile and should be fluid to the extent that easy syringability exists. It must be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and must be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyetheylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof. Prevention of the action of microorganisms can be achieved by various antibacterial and antifungal agents, for example, parabens, chlorobutanol, phenol, ascorbic acid, thimerosal, and the like. Sterile injectable solutions can be prepared by incorporating the active compound (e.g., a polypeptide or antibody) in the required amount in an appropriate solvent with one or a combination of ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by filtered sterilization. Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the active compound into a sterile vehicle which contains a basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those enumerated above. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, the preferred methods of preparation are vacuum drying and freeze-drying which yields a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof. Oral compositions generally include an inert diluent or an edible carrier. They can be enclosed in gelatin capsules or compressed into tablets. For the purpose of oral therapeutic administration, the active compound can be incorporated with excipients and used in the form of tablets, troches, or capsules. Oral compositions can also be prepared using a fluid carrier for use as a mouthwash, wherein the compound in the fluid carrier is applied orally and swished and expectorated or swallowed. Pharmaceutically compatible binding agents, and/or adjuvant materials can be included as part of the composition. The tablets, pills, capsules, troches and the like can contain any of the following ingredients, or compounds of a similar nature: a binder such as microcrystalline cellulose, gum tragacanth or gelatin; an excipient such as starch or lactose, a disintegrating agent such as alginic acid, Primogel, or corn starch; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate or Sterotes; a glidant such as colloidal silicon dioxide; a sweetening agent such as sucrose or saccharin; or a flavoring agent such as peppermint, methyl salicylate, or orange flavoring. For administration by inhalation, the compounds are delivered in the form of an aerosol spray from a pressurized container or dispenser which contains a suitable propellant, e.g., a gas such as carbon dioxide, or a nebulizer. Systemic administration can also be by transmucosal or transdermal means. For transmucosal or transdermal administration, penetrants appropriate to the barrier to be permeated are used in the formulation. Such penetrants are generally known in the art, and include, for example, for transmucosal administration, detergents, bile salts, and fusidic acid derivatives. Transmucosal administration can be accomplished through the use of nasal sprays or suppositories. For transdermal administration, the active compounds are formulated into ointments, salves, gels, or creams as generally known in the art. In one aspect, the active compounds are prepared with carriers that will protect the compound against rapid elimination from the body, such as a controlled release formulation, including implants and microencapsulated delivery systems. Biodegradable, biocompatible polymers can be used, such as ethylene vinyl acetate, polyanhydrides, polyglycolic acid, collagen, polyorthoesters, and polylactic acid. Methods for preparation of such formulations will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The materials can also be obtained commercially from Alza Corporation and Nova Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Liposomal suspensions (including liposomes targeted to infected cells with monoclonal antibodies to viral antigens) can also be used as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. These can be prepared according to methods known to those skilled in the art, for example, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,522,811. The active ingredient of the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention may be DNA encoding the polypeptide of the present invention. When the DNA encoding the oligopeptide is used as a gene therapy agent for the disease described above, examples of administration methods thereof include a method which administers a vector incorporating the DNA therein. Examples of the vector include plasmids, adenovirus vectors, adeno-associated virus vectors, herpes virus vectors, vaccinia virus vectors, and retrovirus vectors. The therapeutic agent can be expressed in vivo with efficiency by infecting organisms with the viral vectors. Alternatively, a method which introduces the vector or the DNA into liposomes (e.g., positively charged liposomes and positively charged cholesterol) and administers the liposome can be used as an effective therapy. When the pharmaceutical composition of the present invention is used as a preventive and/or therapeutic agent for the diseases described above, it can be administered to mammals such as humans, mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and cats. The dose and number of doses of the pharmaceutical drug of the present invention may be changed appropriately according to the age, sex, and conditions of a subject to be administered, or administration routes. A therapeutically effective amount of protein or polypeptide provided herein can range from about 0.001 to 30 mg/kg body weight, preferably about 0.01 to 25 mg/kg body weight, more preferably about 0.1 to 20 mg/kg body weight, and even more preferably about 1 to 10 mg/kg, 2 to 9 mg/kg, 3 to 8 mg/kg, 4 to 7 mg/kg, or 5 to 6 mg/kg body weight. For antibodies, the preferred dosage is 0.1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg of body weight (generally 10 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg). If the antibody is to act in the brain, a dosage of 50 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg is usually appropriate. Generally, partially human antibodies and fully human antibodies have a longer half-life within the human body than other antibodies. Accordingly, lower dosages and less frequent administration is often possible. Modifications such as lipidation can be used to stabilize antibodies and to enhance uptake and tissue penetration (e.g., into the brain). A method for lipidation of antibodies is described by Cruikshank et al. ((1997) J. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 14:193). The skilled artisan will appreciate that certain factors may influence the dosage required to effectively treat a subject, including but not limited to the severity of the disease or disorder, previous treatments, the general health and/or age of the subject, and other diseases present. Moreover, treatment of a subject with a therapeutically effective amount of a protein, polypeptide, or antibody can include a single treatment or, preferably, can include a series of treatments. In a preferred example, a subject is treated with antibody, protein, or polypeptide in the range of between about 0.1 to 20 mg/kg body weight, one time per week for between about 1 to 10 weeks, preferably between 2 to 8 weeks, more preferably between about 3 to 7 weeks, and even more preferably for about 4, 5, or 6 weeks. It will also be appreciated that the effective dosage of antibody, protein, or polypeptide used for treatment may increase or decrease over the course of a particular treatment. Changes in dosage may result and become apparent from the results of diagnostic assays as described herein. It is understood that appropriate doses of small molecule agents depends upon a number of factors within the ken of the ordinarily skilled physician, veterinarian, or researcher. The dose(s) of the small molecule will vary, for example, depending upon the identity, size, and condition of the subject or sample being treated, further depending upon the route by which the composition is to be administered, if applicable, and the effect which the practitioner desires the small molecule to have upon the nucleic acid or polypeptide of the invention. Exemplary doses include milligram or microgram amounts of the small molecule per kilogram of subject or sample weight (e.g., about 1 microgram per kilogram to about 500 milligrams per kilogram, about 100 micrograms per kilogram to about 5 milligrams per kilogram, or about 1 microgram per kilogram to about 50 micrograms per kilogram. It is furthermore understood that appropriate doses of a small molecule depend upon the potency of the small molecule with respect to the expression or activity to be modulated. Such appropriate doses may be determined using the assays described herein. When one or more of these small molecules is to be administered to an animal (e.g., a human) in order to modulate expression or activity of a polypeptide or nucleic acid of the invention, a physician, veterinarian, or researcher may, for example, prescribe a relatively low dose at first, subsequently increasing the dose until an appropriate response is obtained. In addition, it is understood that the specific dose level for any particular animal subject will depend upon a variety of factors including the activity of the specific compound employed, the age, body weight, general health, gender, and diet of the subject, the time of administration, the route of administration, the rate of excretion, any drug combination, and the degree of expression or activity to be modulated. Having now generally described various aspects and aspects of the invention, the same will be more readily understood through reference to the following examples which are provided by way of illustration, and are not intended to be limiting, unless specified. EXAMPLES Example 1 Expression patterns of SHLPs in vivo. To gain insights into the physiological roles of SHLPs, monoclonal antibodies were generated against SHLP2, SHLP3, and SHLP6 (Open Biosystems) and were used to assess expression patterns of the SHLPs across a variety of murine tissues. Male and female C57/B16 mice at 45 weeks of age were euthanized, and brain, liver, kidneys, heart, ovaries, skeletal muscle, breast, testes, prostate and pancreas tissues were harvested. SHLP expression levels in protein extracts isolated from the harvested tissues were measured immunologically using anti-SHLP antibodies. SHLPs were expressed in vivo according to the expression patterns summarized in table 7. TABLE 7 Endogenous SHLP expression Protein Main Tissues of Expression SHLP2 Liver, kidney, pancreas, plasma SHLP3 Liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, plasma SHLP6 Prostate, testis, breast, brain Example 2 SHLPs are anti-apoptotic in 22RV1 prostate cancer cells and NIT-1 β-cells. Since HN has been shown to have anti-apoptotic actions in both cancer and pancreatic β-cells in vitro, it was hypothesized that SHLPs may also influence cell survival. Mouse NIT-1 insulinoma β-cells and 22RV1 human prostate cancer cells were serum starved for 24 h, followed by 24 h incubation with 100 nM scrambled control peptide, HN or SHLPs. Apoptosis was assessed and quantified by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. SHLPs exerted anti-apoptotic effects to varying effects in the two cell types ( FIG. 2 ). Example 3 SHLPs exert distinct effects on cell proliferation. Whether SHLPs have the capacity to influence cell proliferation, in addition to their intrinsic effects on apoptosis induction, was also investigated. Mouse NIT-1 insulinoma β-cells and 22RV1 human prostate cancer cells were serum starved for 24 h, followed by 72 h incubation with 100 nM scrambled control peptide, HN or SHLPs. Cell number, as a measure of cell proliferation, was assessed by cleavage of MTT substrate. SHLPs 1, 4, and 5 slightly stimulated the proliferation of both cell types ( FIGS. 3A&B ). However, SHLPs 2 and 3 had a much greater effect, particularly in NIT-1 cells ( FIG. 3B ), suggesting that they may not only help protect β-cells from apoptotic cell death, but also stimulate their regeneration, indicating therapeutic potential in type I diabetes. Example 4 SHLPs 2 and 3 Stimulate Adipocyte Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells in vitro. Our initial studies revealed that SHLPs can modulate the processes of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We next assessed the ability of SHLP2, 3 and 6 to modulate the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiation was induced in murine 3T3-L1 fibroblasts by incubation in 1 μM dexamethasone, 100 nM insulin, and 500 μM lisobutylmethyxanthine for 2 days, followed by incubation with 10 nM insulin in the presence of 100 nM scrambled peptide (control), SHLP2, SHLP3 or SHLP6 for 7 days. Differentiation was assessed by oil red-0 staining as a measure of oil droplet formation. Unlike SHLP6, SHLPs 2 and 3 strikingly induced adipocyte differentiation ( FIG. 2 ), suggesting that MDPs can also affect cellular differentiation with direct relevance to type II diabetes. Example 5 Characterization of the intracellular signaling pathways activated by SHLPs. To determine a mechanism for the growth and apoptosis effects of SHLPs, SHLPs were tested for the ability to modulate activation of intracellular signaling pathways. 22RV1 cells in SF media were treated with 100 nM SHLP 1-5 and whole cell extracts were harvested after 15 min, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and analyzed by immunoblotting. Temporally distinct profiles for the activation of ERK were observed for each of SHLPs 1-5. SHLP1 caused a 5-fold increase in phosphorylation within 30 min, which was sustained for approximately 8 h, whereas SHLP2 caused a delayed but sustained activation after 8 h ( FIG. 4A ). SHLP3, in contrast, activated ERK rapidly within 2 min ( FIG. 4B ), but the degree of activation began to fall after 30 min and had returned to baseline by 8 h. SHLP4 displayed a similar activation profile to SHLP2, whilst SHLP5 had no observable effect on ERK phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis that SHLPs may act in concert to regulate intracellular signaling, 22RV1 cells were co-treated with SHLPs 2 and 3, and ERK activation was assessed. Consistent with previous observations, results showed a “two-wave” activation—an immediate rapid phosphorylation, presumably corresponding to SHLP3, and a more delayed but sustained activation seemingly corresponding to SHLP2 ( FIG. 4C ). Since HN causes activation of STAT3, SHLPs 2 and 3 were also tested for effects on STAT3. Both peptides significantly enhanced STAT3 activation ( FIG. 4D ). To more accurately quantify the ERK phosphorylation caused by SHLPs 2 and 3, we repeated the experiment as described above but used a commercially available ERK ELISA to assess ERK phosphorylation. Optimal ERK activation by SHLP2 was 9-fold after 24 h, whilst optimal activation by SHLP3 was 12-fold after 2 h ( FIG. 5 ). In addition to 22RV1, the effects of SHLPs on ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation were also studied in NIT-1 pancreatic β-cells. Interestingly, the activation profiles were different than those observed in 22RV1 cells. SHLP2-stimulated ERK phosphorylation was detected within 30 min, and the intensity continued to increase until 24 h ( FIG. 6 ). In contrast, SHLP3 caused a more delayed response, which stimulated ERK phosphorylation by 8 h and sustained the stimulation for 24 h. Indeed, the activation profile caused by SHLP3 in NIT-1 is remarkably similar to that stimulated by SHLP2 in 22RV1. When ERK activation was quantified by ELISA, a 6-fold and 9-fold activation was observed after 2 and 24 h, respectively, by SHLP2. SHLP3 caused no detectable increase in ERK phosphorylation after 2 h, but by 24 h had stimulated activity 15-fold ( FIG. 7 ). Similarly, STAT3 activation by SHLP2 was temporally similar to the timing of ERK activation observed after SHLP2 treatment. In contrast, SHLP3 appeared to only slightly stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation ( FIG. 6 ). The distinct actions of SHLPs in different cell systems indicates that SHLPs may have tissue-specific effects, suggests that different receptors and/or different binding partners may be present in various cell and/or tissue types. Example 6 ERK activation is necessary for SHLP-induced inhibition of apoptosis in NIT-1 and 22RV1 cells. To determine the significance of ERK activation for apoptosis inhibition by SHLPs 2 and 3, PD98059 (PD), a specific chemical inhibitor of ERK1/2, was utilized. 22RV1 and NIT-1 cells were serum starved for 24 h in the presence or absence of 25 μM PD or 1 μM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor; negative control), followed by 24 h incubation with 100 μM scrambled control peptide, SHLP2 or SHLP3. Apoptosis was then assessed by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. As expected, apoptosis was significantly inhibited by SHLP2 and 3 in both 22RV1 and NIT-1 cells. However, pre-treatment with PD98059 abrogated the affects of both SHLPs 2 and 3, indicating that ERK activation is necessary for or facilitates the inhibitory effects of each ( FIG. 8 ). Interestingly, pre-treatment with wortmannin in 22RV1 cells also inhibited SHLP2-induced cell survival, suggesting that SHLP2 activated a PI3-kinase-ERK signalling cascade in this cell system, but not in NIT-1 cells. Overall, these data support a protective role for SHLPs on beta cells in a manner that is relevant to type-1 diabetes. Example 7 STAT3 Activation is also necessary for SHLP-induced cell survival in 22RV1 cells. Since SHLPs 2 and 3 both stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation in addition to ERK activation, the hypothesis that STAT3 activation occurs downstream of ERK1/2 was tested using a specific chemical inhibitor against STAT3, stattic. 22RV1 cells were incubated for 24 h in SF media in the presence or absence of 20 μM stattic followed by 24 h incubation with 100 nM scrambled control peptide, SHLP2 or SHLP3. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. Pre-treatment with STAT3 inhibitor abrogated the protective effects of both SHLPs ( FIG. 9 ). These data suggest that both ERK and STAT3 activation are necessary for SHLP-induced inhibition of apoptosis, suggesting that STAT3 is downstream of ERK in the signaling cascades activated by SHLPs 2 and 3. Example 8 Role of IGFBP-3 in effects of SHLPs on cell survival. Since IGFBP-3 is an important regulator of HN action, IGFBP-3 was tested for a possible role in regulating the anti- or pro-apoptotic actions of SHLPs. NIT-1 cells were incubated with 1 μg/ml IGFBP-3±0, 10, 100 or 1000 nM SHLP2 or 3 for 24 h. Apoptosis induction was assessed by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. As expected, incubation of NIT-1 cells with IGFBP-3 led to the induction of apoptosis. Incubation with SHLP2 led to a dose dependent inhibition of apoptosis that was unaffected by the presence of IGFBP-3 ( FIG. 10A ). Although treatment with SHLP3 led to reduced levels of apoptosis, interestingly SHLP3 demonstrated the ability to inhibit IGFBP-3-induced apoptosis ( FIG. 10B ), suggesting a possible interaction with the IGF system. Example 9 Co-incubation of SHLPs. To evaluate therapeutic uses involving co-treatment with SHLPs, the effect of HN±SHLPs on apoptosis was tested in both 22RV1 and NIT-1 cells. Cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by 24 h with 100 nM HN, SHLP or peptide combination. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. Cells were treated with all possible double peptide combinations. Although many peptide combinations had no additive or combined effects compared with the actions of the peptides individually, co-treatment with certain combinations led to unexpected functional changes ( FIG. 11 ). For example, treatment with SHLPs 1&5, or 4&5 individually had minimal effect of survival in 22RV1 cells ( FIG. 11A ). However, when added together, the peptides potently promoted cell survival. Thus, specific SHLPs may either act on complementary pathways, or interact with each other, leading to change of function of one or both peptides. When the same experiments were repeated in NIT-1 cells, similar, but different, change of function effects were observed ( FIG. 11B ). For example, the addition of HN with either SHLP3 or 4 led to blocking of the anti-apoptotic effects observed with either peptide individually. To test a dimerization hypothesis, we performed a dot-blot using biotinylated-HN. Two, 5 or 10 nmol IGF-I (negative control), HN (positive control) or SHLP peptide were dotted on to nitrocellulose membrane, and their ability to bind to biotinylated-HN was assessed immunologically. HN was observed to dimerize/multimerize with itself. In addition, although no interaction was observed between HN with SHLP1, weak interaction was seen with SHLP2, and seemingly very strong interactions was seen between HN and SHLP4 ( FIG. 12 ). These data suggest that interactions may occur between SHLPs and/or HN. Specific interactions that occur may be determined using, e.g., dot blots with biotinylated SHLPs, and/or antibodies against specific SHLPs. Example 10 SHLPs protect neurons from Aβ-induced apoptosis. When it was first discovered, HN was described as a potent neural survival factor with clinical implications as a therapeutic agent against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease. Since many of the SHLPs appear to be functionally related to HN, SHLPs were tested as potential neuroprotective factors. Mouse primary cortical neurons were incubated with 25 μM Aβ1-43 in the presence or absence of 100 nM SHLP2 or 3, HNG (positive control) or 1 nM colivelin (positive control). After 72 h, neuronal viability was assessed by Calcein-AM staining followed by fluorescence microscopy ( FIG. 13 ). Incubation of neurons with Aβ led to dramatic cell death which could be inhibited by incubation with the hyper-potent HN analog HNG (3 rd panel) or the highly potent HN-derivative colivelin (6 th panel). SHLP2 and SHLP3 both demonstrated an ability to protect the neurons from the cell death caused by Aβ-treatment. Example 11 SHLPs enhance stress resistance in yeast. The ability of SHLPs to enhance stress resistance in yeast was tested. The ability of yeast to survive heat shock after being treated with different peptides is a commonly used method to test the ability of peptides to enhance yeast survival. However, few factors have been demonstrated to be protective in this regard, and many growth factors actually have the opposite effect. Treatment with 10 μM of HN SHLP2 or 3 allowed the yeast to withstand 90° heat shock ( FIG. 14 ), suggesting that the SHLPs and or humanin may have protective effects atypical of common growth factors—this unexpected property suggests that SHLPs would be useful in cancer therapy. Example 12 SHLPs suppress intracellular production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS production was monitored by following the conversion of the oxidant-sensitive dye dihydroethidine to the fluorescent ethidium (DHE) for measuring the cellular ability to produce Reactive Oxygen Species. HAEC'S plated on glass cover slips were incubated over night with 0.1 nM SHLP2 or SHLP6 versus regular cultured medium. For ROS measurement, cells were incubated for 30 min with 10 μM DHE in HBSS containing calcium magnesium and glucose at 37° c. Then cells were treated with Oxidized LDL 100 μg protein/ml for 30 minutes at 37° c. Samples were imaged under fluorescence microscope with a Texas Red filter corresponding to the fluorescence of DHE. Average fluorescence intensity was used to evaluate the changes of intracellular ROS generation, results are expressed in relative fluorescence unit (RFU) representing average intensity per cell area. SHLP2 suppresses ROS production, providing additional evidence that it protects against oxidative stress. Example 13 Pro-apoptotic effect on human prostate cancer cells in vitro. To assess the ability of SHLP6 to induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells, PC-3, 22RV1 or DU145 cells were incubated in serum free (SF) media for 24 h followed by 24 h incubation with 1 μM scrambled (control) peptide or SHLP6. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. In each cell line tested, SHLP6 induced apoptosis by at least 2-fold ( FIG. 2 ), confirming highly significant physiological effects of this novel peptide. To determine whether the effects of SHLP6 were specific to induction of apoptosis, or if it also elicited growth-inhibitory effects, PC-3, DU-145, 22RV1, LAPC4 and LNCaP cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by 72 h incubation with 1 μM SHLP6. Cell number, as a measure of cell proliferation, was assessed by cleavage of MTS substrate. Interestingly, SHLP6 only had an anti-proliferative effect in LAPC4 cells ( FIG. 3 ), suggesting that its effects are influenced by p53, AR or PTEN status, or a combination of the three, and that its predominant anti-cancer effects involve induction of apoptosis, as opposed to inhibition of cell proliferation. Example 14 Pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects on human breast cancer cells in vitro. To assess the ability of SHLP6 to induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, we incubated MCF-7 cells in serum free (SF) media for 24 h followed by 24 h incubation with 1 μM scrambled (control) peptide or SHLP6. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA for fragmentation of histone-associated DNA. SHLP6 potently induced apoptosis, confirming highly significant physiological effects of this novel peptide ( FIG. 5A ). To determine whether the effects of SHLP6 were specific to induction of apoptosis, or if it also elicited growth-inhibitory effects, we incubated MCF-7 cells in SF media for 24 h followed by 72 h incubation with 1 μM SHLP6 or control peptide. Cell number, as a measure of cell proliferation, was assessed by cleavage of MTS substrate. SHLP6 also inhibited proliferation ( FIG. 5B ), suggesting that its predominant anti-cancer effects involve both the induction or apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Example 15 Inhibition of 22RV1 xenograft tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. In light of the pro-apoptotic actions of SHLP6 in vitro and the association of many cancers with mitochondrial dysfunction, the effect of SHLP6 on tumor growth was investigated in vivo. SCID mice harboring 22RV1 prostate cancer xenografts were treated with 4 mg/kg/day SHLP6 or scrambled control peptide by daily i.p. injection for 7 days. Subjects exhibited no detectable signs of toxicity. Remarkably, considering the relatively short-term of treatment, tumors injected with SHLP6 were found to be significantly (˜30%) smaller than control tumors (p=0.04; FIG. 20 ). The findings provides direct, in vivo evidence that SHLP6 is capable of reducing tumor size and volume (not shown). To assess the mechanism underlying the reduction in tumor growth, tumor apoptosis (TUNEL), angiogenesis (VEGF) and tumor cell proliferation (PCNA; not shown) were assessed by IHC ( FIG. 19 ). Tumors treated with SHLP6 exhibited increased apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and reduced proliferation, indicating that SHLP6 acts via multiple mechanisms to inhibit tumor growth. SHLP6 therefore has great potential as an anti-cancer agent. The anticancer activity of SHLP6 is confirmed and further elucidated by conducting immunohistochemical analyses of xenograft tumors for angiogenic, apoptotic and proliferative markers, and by analyzing serum factors, including IGF-1, HN, GH and IGFBP-3. Example 16 Inhibition of angiogenesis in zebrafish in vivo. To investigate the effect of SHLP6 on angiogenesis in vivo, SHLP6 was injected into embryos of zebrafish having vascular systems engineered to express GFP. SHLP6 significantly inhibited vessel formation at 48 hpf ( FIG. 21 ). Example 17 Modulation of cancer-associated gene expression. To narrow down the mechanism of action of SHLP6 in prostate cancer cells, the SuperArray RT2 Profiler™ PCR Array: Human Cancer PathwayFinder™ array was used to assay the expression of cancer-associated genes. The array consisted of a 96 well format containing 84 key genes frequently dysregulated in cancer, including genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA damage repair, apoptosis and cell senescence, signal transduction, transcription factors, adhesion, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, as well as housekeeping and control genes. 22RV1 cells were incubated in SF media for 24 h followed by incubation with 1 μM SHLP6 or scrambled (control) peptide. RNA was isolated using Trizol, and cDNA was isolated. Real-time PCR analysis was then carried out using SYBR green on a standard ABI real-time PCR machine. A number of genes implicated in apoptosis, adhesion, metastasis and angiogenesis of tumors were up- or down-regulated by SHLP6 treatment (Table 8). Of the genes upregulated were common apoptosis genes, including Apaf-1 (one component of the cellular apoptosome), Bax and Bcl-x (which can be anti-apoptotic when spliced in to Bcl-xl, and pro-apoptotic when spliced in to Bcl-xs). Several anti-metastasis genes, including TIMP1, NME1 and NME4, were also upregulated. However, the most dramatic change in mRNA expression we observed was for VEGF-A, whose expression was down-regulated more than 70-fold by SHLP6. These observations suggest that the therapeutic potential of SHLP6 is not limited to inducing tumor apoptosis, but may also be extended to anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic effects in prostate cancer. The observed gene changes are verifiable by, e.g., immunoblotting. TABLE 8 Genes up- or down-regulated by SHLP6. Fold-Change in Gene Expression Protein Function Apaf-1 +3 Apoptotic peptidase activating factor-1; forms part of apoptosome with ATP and cytochrome c BAX +2 pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 +5.5 Apoptosis regulator Bcl-x +49 Depends on splicing; Bcl-xI is anti- apoptotic and Bcl-Xs is pro-apoptotic PI3-kinase +4 Regulatory subunit; inhibits tumor p85α formation in some cancers NME1 +2.5 NME = non-metastatic, metastasis NME4 +4 suppressor Integrin α1 +2.5 Regulate cell: cell and cell: ECM Integrin α2 +4 contact; regulate signaling from ECM to Integrin α3 +2 the cell TIMP1 +2 MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) inhibitor; metastasis suppressor COL18A1 +2 Endostatin; angiogenesis inhibitor IFNA1 (IFNα) +2.5 Angiogenesis inhibitor VEGF-A −70 Pro-angiogenic Example 18 Modulation of signaling pathways. SHLP6 had no detectable effect on expression levels of survival-related signaling molecules (Akt, ERK, STAT3, JNK) as measured by western blotting. To investigate the effect of SHLP6 on a wider range of signaling pathways, cells were incubated with 1 μM SHLP6 for 2 h and cell lysates were analyzed using an antibody microarray (Kinexus; Vancouver, BC). The array comprised over 650 antibodies encompassing more than 240 protein kinases, 28 phosphatases and 90 other cell signaling proteins that regulate cell proliferation, stress and apoptosis. In addition, the array contained over 270 phospho-site antibodies, allowing changes in the activity of target proteins to be assessed in addition to changes in expression levels. SHLP6 treatment had wide-ranging effects, affecting proteins involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, inflammation, apoptosis and transcription (examples are provided in Table 9). The data indicate that SHLP6 has wide-ranging effects on cellular function. TABLE 9 Cellular markers affected by SHLP6. Protein Fold Change STAT5A Y694 0.34 STAT6 (induces expression of anti-apoptotic 0.40 Bcl-2 family members) EGFR 0.55 pRb (tumor suppressor) 1.45 Caldesmon (calmodulin binding protein; inhibits 2.35 ATPase activity) ERP72 (ER protein; ER-specific chaperone) 3.92 Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific aspects of the invention described herein. Such equivalents are intended to be encompassed by the following claims.

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